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Chapter 15 US - Chapter 15 Immigrants and Urbanization...

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Chapter 15: Immigrants and Urbanization Section 1: The New Immigrants Through the “Golden Door” -Between 1870 and 1920 approximately 20 million Europeans arrived from the US. -Why? The promise of a better life - to escape difficult conditions such as famines and land shortages, or to escape religious or political persecution. -Others known as "birds of passage " came to the US to earn money and then return home. -Chinese immigrants came to the West Coast and similar numbers. Many came to seek their fortunes after the discovery of gold and 1848. -However, Chinese immigration was sharply limited by a congressional act in 1882. Life in the New Land A Difficult Journey -A trip across the Atlantic from Europe to the United States took approximately 1 week, while the Pacific crossing from Asia to nearly 3 weeks. -Once on land the immigrants faced the anxiety of not knowing whether they would be admitted into the United States. *Ellis Island - was a US immigration and inspection station in the New York Harbor. -17 million immigrants passed through its doors. *Angel Island - located in the San Francisco Bay ; this is where Asians, primarily Chinese arriving on the West Coast gained admission. -Processing at Angel Island was much harsher than on Ellis Island. -Once admitted into the country, immigrants faced the challenges of finding a place to live, getting a job, and getting along in daily life while trying to understand an unfamiliar language and culture. Immigration Restrictions *Nativism - the overt favoritism towards native-born Americans. -People often disliked the immigrants’ unfamiliar customs and languages and view them as a threat to the American way of life. *Melting Pot - a mixture of people of different cultures and races to who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs. Anti-Asian Sentiment -Native born workers feared that their jobs would go to Chinese immigrants who would accept lower wages. *Chinese Exclusion Act - passed in 1882 by Congress. It banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. -In 1892, it was extended for another 10 years. -In 1902, Chinese immigration was restricted indefinitely; this law was not repealed until 1943. -In 1906, the fears that had led to anti-Chinese aggression extended to Japanese and other Asian people. -The local Board of Education in San Francisco segregated Japanese children by putting them in separate schools. *Gentleman's Agreement - (1907-1908) when Japan raised an angry protest at the treatment of its emigrants, President Theodore Roosevelt worked out a deal.
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