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Chapter 26 US - Chapter 26 Cold War Conflicts Section 1...

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Chapter 26: Cold War Conflicts Section 1: Origins of the Cold War -The US and the Soviet Union emerged from WWII as two “Superpowers” with vastly different political & economic systems. Former Allies Clash -Besides their communists & capitalist system, the US was furious at how Stalin at first supported Hitler, then only after Hitler invaded the Soviet Union he supported the Allies. -The US & the Soviets became more suspicious of each other during the war. -Relations worsened after Stalin learned about the secret development of the A-bomb. The UN *United Nations (UN)- April 25, 1945, the representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish a new peace keeping body. -Both the US & the Soviet Union used the UN as a forum to spread their influence over others. Truman Becomes President -FDR died- Truman became president (12 April 1945) -During his term as VP, Truman had not been included in top policy decisions. -He did not even know about the development of the Atomic Bomb. The Potsdam Conference (July 1945) -“The Big Three ”- The US, GB, & the Soviet Union not at the final war time conference at Potsdam near Berlin. -At the earlier Yalta Conference, Stalin promised FDR that he would allow free elections in Poland & other parts of East Europe that he occupied. By July 1945, it was clear that he would not keep this promise. Tension Mounts -Truman was upset at Stalin’s refusal to all free elections. -Truman’s goal in demanding free elections was to spread democracy to nations that had been under Nazi rule. (Self-determination) -After hard bargaining, it was agreed that the Soviet, British, Americans, & French would take reparations mainly from their own occupation zones within Germany. Soviets tighten their grip on Eastern Europe -Stalin installed communist govts in Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, & Poland. *Satellite Nations - countries dominated by the Soviet Union. US Established a Policy of Containment -February 1946- George F. Kennan - an American diplomat in Moscow, proposed a policy of *containment - taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries. -The policy began to guide the Truman administration’s foreign policy. -Western Europe was mostly democratic & Eastern Europe was communist. *“Iron Curtain ”- came to stand for the division of Europe. -Stalin felt that these words from Churchill were a “call to war ”. Cold War in Europe *Cold War - a conflict between the US & the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield. (1945-1991) 1
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The Truman Doctrine -Britain was sending economic & military support to Greece & Turkey to prevent a communist takeover. -Because of the war GB could no longer afford to do so. -March 1947 - Truman asked congress for $400 million in economic & military aid for Greece & Turkey .
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