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Chapter 28 US - Chapter 28 The New Frontier The Great...

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Chapter 28: The New Frontier & The Great Society Section 1: Kennedy & The Cold War -The Kennedy Administration faced some of the most dangerous Soviet confrontation in American history. -1960- Ike’s second term drew close to ending. -The economy was in a recession. -The USSR launched Sputnik in 1957 & its development of long-range missiles had sparked fears that the American military was falling behind that of the soviet. -1960 election-JFK (D)- Massachusetts Senator vs. VP Rep. Richard M. Nixon -TV debate & civil rights helped put JFK over the top. -2 nd youngest president (43) and the first Roman Catholic President. -When MLK was arrested for sitting at a segregated lunch counter & charged with months of hard labor (officially for a minor traffic violation) the Eisenhower administration refused to intervene & Nixon took no public position. -JFK called MLK’s wife Coretta Scott King , to express his sympathy while Robert Kennedy persuaded the judge who sentenced King to release him on bail, pending an appeal. The Camelot Years -JFK’s inauguration set the tone for a new era at the White House: one of grace, elegance, and wit. -JFK invited over 100 writers, artists, & scientists, including opera singer Marian Anderson, who had once been banned from singing at Constitutional Hall b/c she was African American. -“And so my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country”. -The White House reminded many of a modern day Camelot, the mythical court of King Arthur. -Coincidentally, the musical Camelot had opened on Broadway in 1960. -JFK surrounded himself with a team of advisers that one journalist called “The best and the brightest.” -They included his brother Robert, the attorney general and Robert McNamera, a national secretary adviser. A New Military Policy -JFK thought that Ike’s administration had not done enough about the Soviet threat & blasted the republicans for allowing communism to develop in Cuba, at America’s doorstep. -Flexible Response- strengthening & modernizing the military’s ability to fight a nuclear war . 1
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-JFK increased defense spending-created an elite branch of the Army called the Special Forces & tripled the overall nuclear capabilities of the US. Crises Over Cuba -JFK’s 1 st day of foreign policy became his first test. -About 2 weeks before JFK took office, Ike had cut off diplomatic relations with Cuba b/ c of revolutionary leader named *Fidel Castro . -Castro declared himself a communist & welcomed aid from the Soviets. -From 1956-59- Castro led a guerrilla movement to topple dictator Fulgencia Batista with the promise of democracy. -The US was suspicious, but nevertheless recognized the new govt. -Castro seized 3 American & British oil refineries which caused relations worsen. -About 10% of Cuba’s population went into exile, mostly to the US, mainly to Miami, FL.
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