Chapter 29 US

Chapter 29 US - Chapter 29: Civil Rights Section 1: Taking...

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Chapter 29: Civil Rights Section 1: Taking on Segregation -Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advanced equal rights for AF’s in the 1950’s and 1960’s. -Civil Rights Act of 1875 - “All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations- of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement.” -In 1883 the Supreme Court declared this Act unconstitutional. *Plessy v Ferguson- “separate but equal” did not violate the 14 th . -Jim Crow laws began to spring up all over the south. A Developing Civil Rights Movement -WWII helped set the stage for the Civil Rights movement by opening the door to new job opportunities, both in the military and at home. -As AF’s came home from fighting in the war, they also wanted to fight for their own freedom in the US. The NAACP Legal Strategy -Desegregation campaign was led by the NAACP, which had fought since 1909 to end segregation. *Charles Hamilton Houston - chief legal counsel from 1934-38. -He focused on the inequality b/t the separate schools. -At the time the US was spending ten times as much $ on white education than on AF. *Thurgood Marshall - 1 st AF named to the US Supreme Court. (1967-1991) -Over 23 yrs, Marshall and the NAACP lawyers would win 29 out of 32 cases argued before the Supreme Court. -Brown v. Board of Education -Reaction to the Brown Decision -Within a yr. more than 500 school districts had desegregated classrooms. -To speed things up, in 1955 the Supreme Court handed down a second ruling, known as Brown II , that ordered school desegregation. Reaction : was mixed throughout the south. Some governors promised to comply, while others vowed total resistance. Crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas -Governor Orval Faubus publicly showed support for segregation. -Sept. 1957, he ordered the National Guard to turn away the “Little Rock Nine ”- nine AF students who had volunteered to integrate Little Rock central high. 1
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-One 15 year old faced an abusive crowd. -This crisis forced Eisenhower to act. -Ike placed the AR National Guard under federal control and ordered a thousand paratroopers into the town. -At the end of the yr., the Governor shut down the high School rather than let integration continue. *1957 Civil Rights Act - shepherded by Senator LBJ of TX, the law gave the attorney general greater power over school desegregation. (It was the first Civil Rights law since Reconstruction.) The Montgomery Bus Boycott Boycotting Segregation -After the 1954 Brown decision, a letter was sent to the mayor of Montgomery, AL, asking that bus drivers no longer be allowed to force riders in the “colored” section to yield their seats to whites. The mayor refused. -1 Dec 1955 *Rosa Parks
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2011 for the course HI 251 taught by Professor Ladie during the Fall '07 term at N.C. State.

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Chapter 29 US - Chapter 29: Civil Rights Section 1: Taking...

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