Chem Lab 15 - Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda...

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Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company Hannah Edwards, Jennifer Major, Alexandra Moore, Jenni Schaffer November 4, 2009
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INTRODUCTION Baking soda, also known as sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3 , is a common compound that we not only encounter everyday, but is useful in many aspects of life. It’s uses vary from acting as a fruit cleaning or even as a fire extinguishing. In producing it, the Athenium Baking Soda Company decided to utilize the following reaction of ammonium bicarbonate and a brine, sodium chloride: NH 4 HCO 3(s) + NaCl (aq) NaHCO 3(aq) + NH 4 Cl The brine, though mostly consisting of sodium chloride, also contains trace amounts of potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and calcium chloride. Thus, when the aqueous baking soda is dried to form the desired, solid product, there is a possibility that the presence of the latter three compounds may be found. In order to ensure quality control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company’s product, we will select three methods of experimentation to determine the purity of its baking soda, as well as its composition. The first experimental procedure to take place will be a thermal gravimetric analysis, which will help determine the percent composition of sodium bicarbonate of a sample of the company’s baking soda. In this experiment, a known mass of a sample of the company’s baking soda will be added to a crucible and heated until it decomposes into solid sodium carbonate, gaseous carbon dioxide, and gaseous water, as shown in the following equation: 2NaHCO 3(s) Na 2 CO 3(s) + CO 2(g) + H 2 O (g) After a reheating of the crucible to ensure accuracy, the stoichiometric ratio for the mass loss of CO 2 and H 2 O per gram of NaHCO 3 will be determined, along with the total mass of CO 2 and H 2 O lost upon heating. These will be used in order to determine the 2
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mass of NaHCO 3 present in the sample. Finally, using the collected data, the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in the company’s sample will be calculated so that it may be used as an indicator of whether or not other contaminants were present in the sample. If the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 is not 100% or extremely close, then it can be concluded that there is in fact traces contaminants in the baking soda mixture. The second experimental procedure will be a titration of a solution containing a sample of the company-produced baking soda sample, which will also aid in determining the percent by mass of sodium bicarbonate in the sample. This second method of determining the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in the sample is used in order to provide accuracy. This experiment will first involve the preparation of solid sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) into an aqueous solution that will act as a primary standard base. As a primary standard base, this particular solution will be used to titrate an aqueous solution of the baking soda (NaHCO 3 ) that is to be prepared from the solid, company-produced sample.
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Chem Lab 15 - Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda...

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