Psychology Notes Chap 2

Psychology Notes Chap 2 - Chapter 2: The Brain &...

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I. COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BRAIN 1. Neuron: Cell in nervous system that receives, integrates, and transmits information. They can be different shapes and sizes. a. Parts of the Neuron: Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons Soma: Cell body Cell nucleus: Creates substances necessary for the neuron to survive. Life support of neuron Axon: Long, thin fiber that transmits signals from one end of the neuron to the next Myelin Sheath: Insulating material that coats axon and speeds transmission of info. It also helps send information faster. Terminal Buttons: Small knobs that secrete neurotransmitters to transmit the neuron’s message to the next neuron Synapse: Junction (gap) between neurons where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. b. How Does a Neuron Transmit Info? Action potential travels down axon to terminal buttons. -Action potential: brief electrical charge. When axon potential reaches terminal fibers, the release neurotransmitters. -Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers released from terminal branches that travel across synapse to stick to dendrites of other neurons. When enough neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites on the next neuron’s dendrites, it causes the neuron to fire. (This is “all or nothing” phenomenon) c. Neurotransmitters Several types, each with specialized functions -Receptors on dendrites are specialized: only certain neurotransmitters can bind to them Reuptake: The process of reabsorbing unused transmitters. Agonists: Chemical that mimics action of neurotransmitters causing similar effects. (opium)
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Antagonists: Chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter d. Other cells in the Brain Glia cells: Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
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Psychology Notes Chap 2 - Chapter 2: The Brain &...

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