lecture4 - Carbohydrates Carbohydrate a polyhydroxyaldehyde...

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13-1 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Carbohydrate : : a polyhydroxyaldehyde, polyhydroxyketone, or substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis Monosaccharide Monosaccharide : : a carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate they have the general formula C H O , where n varies from 3 to 8 aldose aldose : a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group ketose ketose : a monosaccharide containing a ketone group
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13-2 Monosaccharides Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are classified by their number of carbon atoms hexose heptose octose triose tetrose pentose Formula Name C 3 H 6 O 3 C 4 H 8 O 4 C 5 H 1 0 O 5 C 6 H 1 2 O 6 C 7 H 1 4 O 7 C 8 H 1 6 O 8
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13-3 Monosaccharides Monosaccharides There are only two trioses Dihydroxyacetone    (a ketotriose) Glyceraldehyde  (an aldotriose) CHO CHOH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH C= O CH 2 OH
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13-4 Monosaccharides Monosaccharides Glyceraldehyde contains a stereocenter and exists as a pair of enantiomers L-Glyceraldehyde D-Glyceraldehyde CHO C CHO C H OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH H HO
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13-5 Fischer Projections Fischer Projections Fischer projection Fischer projection : : a two dimensional representation for showing the configuration of tetrahedral stereocenters horizontal lines represent bonds projecting forward vertical lines represent bonds projecting to the rear the carbon atom at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines is not shown D-Glyceraldehyde CHO C H OH CH 2 OH D-Glyceraldehyde convert to  a Fischer projection H OH CHO CH 2 OH
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13-6 D,L Monosaccharides D,L Monosaccharides According to the conventions proposed by Fischer D-monosaccharide D-monosaccharide : a monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH on its next to last carbon on the right L-monosaccharide L-monosaccharide : a monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH on its next to last carbon on the left
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