History of Pharmacy (final)

History of Pharmacy (final) - Oct 14: Pharmacy and Medicine...

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Oct 14: Pharmacy and Medicine at the beginning of the Renaissance Period The Phenomenon of Renaissance Time period encompassing the Renaissance o 1440-1650, focus on 16 th Century Factors and events that led to the Renaissance o Crusades - results in interaction between western and Middle Eastern culture o Plague - focus on the need for additional knowledge to cure plague Geographic areas o Western Europe, focus began in Italy (Florence) Some major developments associated with the Renaissance that changed pharmacy and medicine Inventions o Movable type and the printing press Invented by: Johannes Gutenberg (1390-1468)-1440 – got information out o Microscope (1590) – more influence on pharmacy and medicine Developed by: Hans and Zacharias Jansen and other Dutch inventors o Telescope (1608) – influenced science in general Age of the explorers and relationship to pharmacy and medicine o Not just to acquire new land, but to look for spices associated with drugs o There was a time in England, pharmacists look for spices o When relationship b/w Christian west and Islamic east broke down, the land travel route to India was cut off to West Diminishment of religion’s influence on science and medicine o Frustration and the plague – Prayer was not much of help, Realized need to have science based knowledge and need to be more free and willing in human dissection o Martin Luther (1483-1546) and the Protestant Reformation – lessened central authoritarian approach that Christian religion had until that time, availability of printed word contributed to heighten of Protestant reformation o Mikolaj Kopernik (Nicholas Copernicus) (1473-1543) and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Mikolaj Kopernik - Proposed theory of planetary revolution around sun Galileo Galilei – used telescope and proved Copernicus’s idea was correct Theory offended Roman Church Put on trial and force Galileo to take back his theory Status of Pharmacy as a profession during the Renaissance Clearly recognize as independent and separate, necessary profession (need recognition extended into English speaking land where overlap still existed); guilds developed The beginning of the official compendia (formularies) Pharmacopeias Nuovo Receptario – 1498 – “The New Formulary” written in Italian Length – 88 pages Political entity where official – Florence, Italy. Was obligatory to guild pharmacist Rationale and motivation – drug standardization, initial thrust comes from physician, it was hard to get guild pharmacists to use it Role of the Dominican Monk, Giaolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) - Died because the pope got a hold of him (tortured on a rack, admitted heretic, burned at stake). Big religious reformer says pope is evil- and need changes in church. Precursor to Martin Luther. In Florence- he got physicians guild and pharmacist
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History of Pharmacy (final) - Oct 14: Pharmacy and Medicine...

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