Theories of Motivation

Theories of Motivation - Theories of Motivation Content...

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Theories of Motivation Content Theories Many of the theories of motivation developed by behavioral scientists over the past 75 years use simple content models that describe how and why people are motivated to work. Four of the best-known content models are those developed by Frederick Herzberg (discussed in the text), Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, and David McClelland. 1 Content theories provide for a static ―snapshot‖ of how people are motivated to perform certain activities. Process Theories The second major thrust in motivation theories was the development of process models . Process theories and their models explain the dynamic process (as opposed to the static ―snapshots‖ of content theories) of how people make choices under certain types of processes or situations in an effort to obtain desired rewards. The most influential theories were developed by Victor H. Vroom, Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler, Edward Locke, and Robert J. House. Vroom proposed his preference-expectancy theory in 1964. 2 Vroom‘s work formed the basis for one of the better known process theories, the Porter and Lawler model, which is one of the most widely accepted process models of motivation available today. Porter and Lawler extended Vroom‘s work by examining more closely the traits and perceptions of the individual and the nature and impact of rewards on motivation. The Porter and Lawler model is a process model that explains the conditions and processes (contingencies) by which motivation to work takes place. 3 A contingency model defines the variables of a process, the interactions between those variables, and the dynamic conditions under which those variables work.
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Figure 1 Porter and Lawler Model The Porter and Lawler model is shown in Figure 1. The flow of this model indicates that effort (Box 3) is dependent on value of reward (Box 1) and perceived effort-reward probability (Box 2). Effort leads to performance (Box 6), which is affected by the abilities and traits (Box 4) and the role perceptions (Box 5) of the individual. Performance (Box 6), in turn, influences actual rewards—intrinsic (Box 7A) or extrinsic (Box 7B)—perceived equitable rewards (Box 8), and exerts a long-term influence (feedback) on perceived effort-reward probability. The rewards (Boxes 7A and 7B) and their perceived equity (Box 8) then influence satisfaction (Box 9), which has a long-term influence (feedback) on the value of reward (Box 1). Components of the model are expectancy (which includes performance-outcome expectancy and effort-performance expectancy), instrumentality (the combination of abilities, traits, and role perceptions), and valence (preference for anticipated outcomes). Valence is represented by the value of reward. Expectancy is included in the perceived
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2011 for the course MGMT 532 taught by Professor Quiggley during the Winter '10 term at Embry-Riddle FL/AZ.

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Theories of Motivation - Theories of Motivation Content...

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