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Indian J Med Sci, Vol. 63, No. 11, November 2009 520 SMOKING AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: A REVIEW OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF TOBACCO D. S. PRASAD, ZUBAIR KABIR 1 , A. K. DASH 2 , B. C. DAS 3 ABSTRACT The causal associations between cigarette smoking and human diseases are irrefutable. In this review, we focus on the epidemiological pattern of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular risk, the underlying mechanistic process of such a causal link, how to prevent premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality particularly through smoking cessation, and the health benefits of such cessation measures. Finally, we conclude our review summarizing a few of the proven evidence-based tobacco control strategies and policies from across the globe. We did not conduct a systematic review but followed a similar structure. We abstracted the most relevant published literature on the electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library applying specific search terms. We also searched gray literature and consulted experts in the field for cross-references. Smoking has been estimated to cause about 11% of all deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and sudden death through a variety of mechanisms, including the promotion of atherosclerosis, the triggering of coronary thrombosis, coronary artery spasm, and cardiac arrhythmias, and through reduced capacity of the blood to deliver oxygen. Smoking cessation also confers substantial benefits on people with serious heart disease. Smoking cessation should be viewed as therapeutic rather than preventive intervention, similar to treating asymptomatic hypertension. Smoking cessation is highly cost-effective relative to other frequently used medical and surgical interventions. Tobacco related illnesses are important public health issues worldwide. It has been estimated that there are1.1 billion smokers worldwide and 250 million of them live in India. Key words: Cardiovascular disease, risk factor, smoking DOI: 10.4103/0019-5359.58884 PMID: **** PRACTITIONERS’ SECTION Sudhir Heart Centre, Berhampur-760 002, Orissa, 1 Research Institute for a Tobacco Free Society, Dublin, Ireland, 2 M.K.C.G. Medical College, Berhampur-760 004, 3 Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneshwar-751 024, Orissa, India Correspondence: Dr. D. S. Prasad, MD, PhD Consultant Cardiologist, Sudhir Heart Centre, Main road, Dharamnagar, Berhampur-760002, Orissa, India. E-mail: [email protected] INTRODUCTION Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. [1] Cigarette smoking is a major modifi able risk factor for CVD, including coro nary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive
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Indian J Med Sci, Vol. 63, No. 11, November 2009 521 heart failure. [2,3]
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