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Brit and Its Empire Chap2

Brit and Its Empire Chap2 - Week 2(9/8-9/10 Swing to the...

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Week 2 (9/8-9/10) Swing to the East: Rise of the Second British Empire (1600-1800) The British Empire (Levine) Chapter 1 – Uniting the Kingdom 16 th -19 th c cemented the legal, political and economic relationships between dominant England and the Celtic fringe (Wales, Scotland and Ireland) o All these regions directly ruled from ‘internal colonialism’ – bringing the fringe within a broader British realm represents England’s earliest forms into colonial rule Wales – came under control by the 1536 Act of Union o Prior – conflicts were common with the English o English imposed discriminatory regulations and practices on the Welsh as they gained power over them Lacked many rights that the English enjoyed – a pattern of inequality and prejudice that would only grow after formal annexation Scotland – came under control in 1707 by Act of Union robbing Scotland of its own parliament o Associations with England were more complicated – under Stuart rule 1603 with the seat of government firmly located in England until 100 years later o Unlike Wales – because it had been an identifiable sovereign state before unification – maintained its own judicial system, national church (Presbyterian), and separate education system o 1707 Act was a product of negotiation – Scotland was in a position to sever its ties with England and 1707 legislation prevented that The act thus gave Scots more latitude than 1536 Act Welsh had o The Union was harmonious until Jacobite uprisings in the 18 th c Ireland – took effect January 1801 o Most complicated of the various histories of internal colonialism – 16 th c Ireland’s separate island regarded as England’s ‘colonial laboratory’ o Critical political factors prompted this union, related to Britain’s vulnerability to foreign invasion
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Corporation came when Britain was constantly at war with France and sometimes Spain o English intrusions into Ireland date back to the 12 th c – by the 16 th c England was actively engaged in a political, economic and religious subjugation o Urgency to the policy of de-Catholicizing Ireland through migration and plantation Act of Union promised religious toleration with voting and public office Promise that remained unfulfilled After 1801, the kingdom was governed solely and as one from London o State was centralized and the term “Great Britain” was coined o Britain had one parliament and a state religion secured by a Protestant succession to the monarchy It was fear of destabilizing this Protestant sovereignty that prompted Britain’s internal colonialism Ireland as a predominantly Catholic region was the principal for these religious debates Catholics were barred from public office by the Corporation Act of 1661 and the Test Acts of 1673 and 1678 – designed to protect a Protestant succession Reflected a popular and growing sentiment that parliament – although hardly a representative institution – was a specifically Protestant
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Brit and Its Empire Chap2 - Week 2(9/8-9/10 Swing to the...

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