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Unformatted text preview: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, AUGUST 2008 1433 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units for Power System Observability Saikat Chakrabarti , Member, IEEE , and Elias Kyriakides , Member, IEEE Abstract— This paper proposes a method for optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for complete observability of a power system for normal operating conditions, as well as for single branch outages. A binary search algorithm is used to deter- mine the minimum number of PMUs needed to make the system observable. In case of more than one solution, a strategy is pro- posed to select the solution resulting in the most preferred pat- tern of measurement redundancy. The proposed method is used to benchmark the optimal PMU placement solutions for the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus and New England 39-bus test systems. The proposed method is applied on a 298-bus system to determine the optimal placement of PMUs when conventional mea- surements are available. Index Terms— Benchmarking, exhaustive search, measurement redundancy, observability, optimal placement, phasor measure- ment units, state estimation. I. INTRODUCTION A STATE estimator uses information from various measure- ment units and monitoring systems to estimate the states of a power system. Until recently, it was not possible to mea- sure phase angles of the bus voltages in real time due to the technical difficulties in synchronizing measurements from dis- tant locations. The advent of phasor measurement units (PMUs) alleviated this problem by synchronizing the voltage and cur- rent waveforms at widely dispersed locations with respect to a Global Positioning System (GPS) clock . A suitable methodology is needed to determine the optimal locations of PMUs in a power system. In addition to its ability to measure voltage and current phasors, a state-of-the-art PMU may include other features such as protective actions. The scope of the present paper is limited to the use of PMUs for state es- timation. A power system is called completely observable only when all of its states can be uniquely determined , . The objective of the present work is to find the minimum number of PMUs to make the system topologically observable, as well as the optimal locations of these PMUs. Analysis of-1, i.e., normal system minus one element contingencies, has been the standard practice in many utilities . The PMU placement methodology reported here ensures that the system is observ- able during normal operating conditions, as well as during single branch outages. The system is also observable for single PMU outages in the presence of conventional measurements. Manuscript received April 30, 2007; revised November 18, 2007. This work was supported by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation under Grant E a 0505 a 06 . Paper no. TPWRS-00306-2007....
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2011 for the course ENGR 52 taught by Professor Mcmillan during the Spring '10 term at Baylor Med.
- Spring '10