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Unformatted text preview: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 20, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2005 2381 Phasor Measurement Unit Placement Techniques for Complete and Incomplete Observability Reynaldo F. Nuqui , Member, IEEE, and Arun G. Phadke , Life Fellow, IEEE Abstract— This paper presents techniques for identifying place- ment sites for phasor measurement units (PMUs) in a power system based on incomplete observability. The novel concept of depth of unobservability is introduced and its impact on the number of PMU placements is explained. Initially, we make use of spanning trees of the power system graph and a tree search technique to find the optimal location of PMUs. We then extend the modeling to recognize limitations in the availability of commu- nication facilities around the network and pose the constrained placement problem within the framework of Simulated Annealing (SA). The SA formulation was further extended to solve the pragmatic phased installation of PMUs. The performance of these methods is tested on two electric utility systems and IEEE test systems. Results show that these techniques provide utilities with systematic approaches for incrementally placing PMUs thereby cushioning their cost impact. Index Terms— Observability, phasor measurement units, simu- lated annealing, trees (graphs). I. INTRODUCTION P HASOR measurement units (PMUs) are power system devices that provide synchronized measurements of real-time phasors of voltages and currents. Synchronization is achieved by same-time sampling of voltage and current waveforms using timing signals from the Gobal Positioning System Sattelite (GPS). Synchronized phasor measurements elevate the standards of power system monitoring, control, and protection to a new level . The present and possible future applications of phasor measurement units have been well documented . A number of PMUs are already installed in several utilities around the world for various applications such as post-mortem analysis, adaptive protection, system protection schemes, and state estimation. One of the most important issues that need to be addressed in the emerging technology of PMUs is site selection. The intended system application influences the required number of installations. The cost of PMUs limits the number that will be installed although an increased demand in the future is expected to bring down the cost. The place- ment sites are also limited by the available communication facilities, the cost of which may be higher than that of the PMUs. A judicious choice of PMU locations is necessary to meet the criteria of cost and the intended PMU applications. Manuscript received May 26, 2004; revised September 30, 2004. Paper no....
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2011 for the course ENGR 52 taught by Professor Mcmillan during the Spring '10 term at Baylor Med.
- Spring '10