Placement of Synchronized Measurements for Power System Observability

Placement of Synchronized Measurements for Power System Observability

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12 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 24, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 Placement of Synchronized Measurements for Power System Observability Saikat Chakrabarti , Member, IEEE , Elias Kyriakides , Member, IEEE , and Demetrios G. Eliades , Student Member, IEEE Abstract— This paper presents a method for the use of synchro- nized measurements for complete observability of a power system. The placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs), utilizing time-synchronized measurements of voltage and current phasors, is studied in this paper. An integer quadratic programming ap- proach is used to minimize the total number of PMUs required, and to maximize the measurement redundancy at the power system buses. Existing conventional measurements can also be ac- commodated in the proposed PMU placement method. Complete observability of the system is ensured under normal operating conditions as well as under the outage of a single transmission line or a single PMU. Simulation results on the IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus test systems as well as on a 298-bus test system are presented in this paper. Index Terms— Integer quadratic programming, observability, optimal placement, phasor measurement units (PMUs), synchro- nized measurements. I. I NTRODUCTION M ODERN-DAY power systems are being operated under heavily stressed conditions due to the ever-increasing demand for electricity and the operation in deregulated, com- petitive energy market conditions. A real-time wide-area mon- itoring, protection, and control (WAMPAC) system is therefore a critical necessity to enable the full utilization of the potential of the power system. Synchronized measurement technology (SMT) facilitates the realization of a WAMPAC by rendering the time-synchronized measurements from widely dispersed loca- tions. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) are the most accurate and advanced instruments utilizing SMT available to the power system engineers and system operators [1]. The conventional SCADA-based state estimators cannot give a real-time picture of the power system due to the technical difficulties in synchro- nizing measurements from distant locations. The PMUs, when placed at a bus, can offer time-synchronized measurements of the voltage and current phasors at that bus [2]. Depending on the number of measurement channels and fea- tures, a PMU can be expensive. A suitable methodology is there- fore needed to determine the optimal locations of the synchro- nized measurement devices so that the number of PMUs re- Manuscript received April 11, 2008; revised June 24, 2008. Current version published December 24, 2008. This work was supported by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation under Grant /0505/06. Paper no. TPWRD-00235- 2008. The authors are with the University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus (e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]).
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