Monitoring of Power System Topology in Real-Time

Monitoring of Power System Topology in Real-Time -...

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Monitoring of Power System Topology in Real-Time Mladen Kezunovic Texas A&M University Email: [email protected] Abstract Power system topology is defined by the connectivity among power system components such as generators, power transformers, transmission lines, loads, etc. The knowledge about topology is important for correct execution of many monitoring, control and protection actions. This paper introduces an approach that assures accurate determination of the topology in real-time. To be able to justify why this approach is important, the paper gives a background of the topology determination problem and discusses the impact on various application functions. An implementation of the proposed approach consisting of hardware and software modules is outlined. Examples of the functional improvements due to the increased accuracy of topology determination at both the substation and system-wide level are presented at the end. . 1. Introduction Topology of power systems is defined by interconnections among power system components such as generators, power transformers, busbars, transmission lines and loads. The interconnected infrastructure is called power system network. The topology of the network is obtained by determining status of the switching components responsible for maintaining the connectivity status within the network. Such components are called circuit breakers (CBs), and they are used to connect or disconnect any power system component to/from the rest of the network. In addition, some of the applications require knowledge about the power system model where the values of the parameters for all the components in the network need to be defined. The most common way of determining power system topology is through monitoring of the (CB) status. Real-time monitoring is typically done through Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The RTUs are wired to the CB contacts in the substation switchyard, and the detected changes in the CB status are reported to the operators through a SCADA interface. Today’s practice for determining CB status is to monitor the control circuit contacts “a” and “b”. Those contacts are designed to be in a complementing position so that an opening or closing of the CB can be easily determined by verifying the opposite status of the “a” and “b” contact positions. While this approach has been used for some time, the reliability of the contact “a” and “b” indication has always been a concern due to relatively frequent errors in the readings of the contacts, that may malfunction, or the errors in the SCADA communications, that may fail. As a result, alternative ways of making sure the CB position is determined more reliably are explored in the literature.
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