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Real Time Control of Oscillations of Electric Power Systems

Real Time Control of Oscillations of Electric Power Systems...

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FINAL REPORT ESEERCO PROJECT EP 95-11 Real Time Control of Oscillations of Electric Power Systems September 1996 Prepared by: Power Systems Engineering Research Consortium (PSerc) Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 Principal Investigators: Pete Sauer, M. A. Pai, Stephen Fernandes Ian Dobson, Fernando Alvarado, Scott Greene Bob Thomas, Hsiao-Dong Chiang Prepared for: Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation 1515 Broadway, 43rd Floor New York, New York 10036-5701 and New York State Electric & Gas
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Copyright @ 1996 EMPIRE STATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY RESEARCH CORPORATION AND CORNELL UNIVERSITY. All Rights reserved LEGAL NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (°ESEERCO°) and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (°NYSEG°). Neither ES- EERCO, members of ESEERCO, NYSEG nor any person acting on behalf of any of them: a. Makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with repsect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained in this report, or that the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report may not infringe on privately owned rights; or b. Assumes any liability with respect to the use of, or for damages resulting from the use of, any infor- mation, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report. Prepared by Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ii
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Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the interest and support of the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp. and New York State Electric and Gas. iii
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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 The Dynamic Model for Test Cases 2 3 Sensitivity of critical mode eigenvalues 4 4 Closeness to the Onset of Oscillation and its Sensitivity 7 4.1 Measuring the closeness to onset of oscillations with a margin M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2 Computing the margin M with a continuation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3 The sensitivity of M to parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5 Single Machine Results 10 5.1 Test case system and data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.2 Validation of margin sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.3 Validation of the control effectiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6 37 Bus Equivalent Results 16 6.1 37 bus equivalent test case system and data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2 Eigenvalue analysis for load increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3 Eigenvalue analysis - line outage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7 Computational Issues 18 8 Conclusions 18 A Appendix A 21 B Appendix B 22 iv
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List of Figures 1 Normal vector and margin to the surface of critical parameter values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Schematic of the single machine in " nite bus system test case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3 Margin to Oscillatory Instability vs. Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 v
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List of Tables 1 Machine and System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Excitation System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3 Governor-Steam Turbine Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 Eigenvalues and sensitivities with respect to P C at Hopf bifurcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5 Eigenvalues when P C is changed by ±0.0065 predicted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6 Eigenvalues and sensitivities with respect to V ref at Hopf bifurcation . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7 Eigenvalues when V ref is changed by 0.0023 predicted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8 Critical eigenvalues and their sensitivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 vi
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Executive Summary Contingencies or extreme system loading can cause unacceptable power system operating conditions such
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