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BSCI124 Unit II Exam

BSCI124 Unit II Exam - BSCI124 Unit II Exam Lecture 8 Plant...

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BSCI124 Unit II Exam Lecture 8 Plant Systematics o Have common names o Evolved over centuries o Problem with common names: one plant may be known by several names in different regions, and the same name may be used for several different plants Scientific Names o Genera (or genus) = when similar plant species form a group Genera is grouped into families Families into orders, classes, divisons, and kingdoms o Kingdom Division Class o Order Family Genus o Species o “King David Came Over For Great Spaghetti” Binomial = two names of a species o First name is a gene name o Second name is a species name Homo ( gene ) sapiens ( species ) Taxonomic Hierarchy o Species that have many characteristics in common are grouped into a gene If genes have shared combinations of traits they they are grouped into families Families to orders o Orders to classes Classes to divisions Divisions grouped to kingdoms o Example: house, street, city, county, state, country, continent, planet 3 Domains: o E ubacteria o A rchaea o E ukaryota 6 Kingdoms 10 Plant Divisions o 1. Bryophyta o 2. Cycadophyta
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o 3. Coniferophyta o 4. Ginkogophyta o 5. Gnetophyta o 6. Lycophyta o 7. Magnoliophyta o 8. Psylophyta o 9. Pterophyta o 10. Sphenophyta Species: individuals that are closely related by descent from common ancestor; they can reproduce with each other, but not with members of any other species…can look very different o Morphological species concept = based on shape, size, body parts o Biological species concept = interbreeding populations; offspring are fertile o Evolutionary species concept = individuals with common evolutionary lineage Carolus Linnaeus = established modern system of nomenclature, “Father of Systematic Botany” o Binomial system of nomenclature Evolution o Change in population of organisms over time, adapting to environment or way of life Must be genetically inherited, not acquired Evolution of Evolutionary Thinking o Lamarack = thought organisms were driven by an inner force toward greater complexity; based off of two observations 1) “use it or lose it” 2) inheritance of acquired traits from ancestors o Later disproved o Darwin = observed island animals are similar to mainland animal species, but show differences due to the conditions of their islands On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Couldn’t believe organisms today appeared as they always appeared, so he thought of Natural Selection Natural Selection: 4 premises: VOCS o 1) V ariation = members of population have individual differences that are inheritable will not work on a population of clones o 2) O ver Production = natural populations reproduce geometrically o 3) C ompetition = individuals compete for limited resources o 4) S urvival to reproduce = only those that are better suited to the environment will survive
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Must have a long period of time to completely change a species
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