Lect_16 - Lecture 16 Grasses Legumes Starchy staples 1...

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Lecture 16: Grasses, Legumes, Starchy staples 1. Grasses – general features Wheat Corn Rice and other grains 2. Legumes Beans, peas, peanut, soybean, forage legumes 3. Starchy staples Potato Sweet potato Cassava and other crops FREE SAMPLES!!!
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1.Grasses Very important plants: they make up 25% of the world’s vegetation! They are found in almost all environments, from arctic marshes to prairies, savannas and tropics. Grasses are monocots – herbaceous, parallel leaf venation, flower parts in 3’s, scattered vascular bundles, fibrous roots. Grasses are member of the Poaceae family
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Importance to humans Grasses include the grains, the single most important food group in the world. Edible grains of cultivated grasses are called cereals Cereals are the major suppliers of calories for human nutrition (wheat, corn and rice) Advantage of cereal grains: dry seeds can be stored for years Grains are a concentrated food source
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Flowers of grasses Inflorescence is the structure containing all the flowers Some have perfect flowers (bisexual): wheat or rice. Others have imperfect (unisexual) flowers: corn Flowers are adapted to wind pollination Flowers are small, inconspicuous and many Anthers are large and produce lots of pollen Stigmas are double and large, to catch pollen
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Grass Fruits Grasses have simple, dry fruits that do NOT open at maturity Caryopsis : seed coat is fused to the ovary wall (corn, wheat, rice) Caryopsis dries until it’s 5-15% water Dry grain can withstand extreme cold, heat Grain parts include: 1. Endosperm 2. Embryo (or germ) 3. Bran
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Grain Endosperm (3n) large cells filled with starch grains; supplies food to germinating seedling The embryo is the young plant (2n); also known as the germ ; rich in oils, proteins, vitamins. The bran consists of outer layers of old fruit wall, seed coat and aleurone layer. Aleurone layer secretes enzymes that digest the stored starch in the endosperm; aleurone is rich in protein and vitamins Whole-grain foods are more nutritious: germ and bran are still there
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Wheat ( Triticum) Wheat is the most widely cultivated grain Adapted to cool dry climate Origin: wild wheat species found in the Near East crossed, forming polypoid species used today
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Wheat types Durum wheat (Triticum durum) is used to make pastas like spaghetti, macaroni and noodles
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Wheat types Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) – has high gluten content Gluten is the protein that gives bread elasticity. Together with a leavening agent (like yeast or baking soda + sugar) is added to produce CO 2 bubbles, which are trapped and make the dough rise
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Wheat Nutrition Wheat is a great source of carbohydrate and fiber, contains 12.9% protein Nutrients are concentrated in the bran and germ Wheat is most nutritious when eaten as whole-wheat product Make sure your bread is 100% Whole
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2011 for the course BSCI 124 taught by Professor Moctezuma during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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Lect_16 - Lecture 16 Grasses Legumes Starchy staples 1...

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