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Lect_18 Stimulating Plants

Lect_18 Stimulating Plants - Lecture 18 Stimulating...

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Lecture 18: Stimulating Beverages Textbook Readings: Chapter 16, plus pages 345-7, and page 327. Caffeine effects Coffee Tea Cocoa or cacao Kola STIMULATING PLANTS: Tobacco Ephedra
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Importance of stimulating plants The trade in stimulating beverages, spices – changed history of many nations Fortunes made, as important as today’s computer industry, defense, oil, or illegal drug trade Rationale for taking stimulating beverages: Flavor, feeling of alertness Stimulating beverages: coffee, _______, cocoa, and _________ All rich in ______________!
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Caffeine is the active ingredient in the most popular stimulating beverages. chemically related to purine bases in DNA (like guanine ) Caffeine is analkaloid, group of secondary compounds found in plants – made to discourage grazing. Desirable effects: Promotes alertness and endurance. Stimulation of central nervous system, faster heartbeat, constriction of blood vessels (headaches relieves), increased respiration rate, suppression of appetite, diuresis( pee a lot ). Undesirable effects: headaches on withdrawal, infertility, birth defects, insomnia, nervousness, irritability Caffeine-containing drinks: Coffee, Tea, Cocoa, Kola
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Coffee Coffee is made from the seeds of Coffea arabica Origin and history of coffee use Native of eastern Africa; ethiopia The fruits and leaves were eaten for stimulation Grown in Yemen; domesticated there, roasting of beans invented in the 13 th century Coffee brewing spread to Arabian world in 16 th century, then to Europe in the 17 th century Coffee houses were popular in Europe by the 1700’s – centers for intellectual discourse
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Centers of coffee trade Mocha, Arabia, in the 17 th century Dutch East Indies and Ceylon in the 18 th century French Islands in the 18 th century Brazil in the 1800’s, where it had a profound impact Now, most coffee produced in brazil and Columbia (leading producers of coffee) Today, coffee is second to oil as the world’s most traded commodity
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Growing coffee beans The plant is a small tree, grows in cool subtropical mountain habitats The small fruit is called a cherry It contains two seeds called beans Harvested by hand when the beans are ripe Processing: The hull is first removed The seeds are fermented for 12-24 hours (but they’re non-alcoholic) Seeds are dried for 1 week Coffee beans are then roasted – which produces the flavor, and the dark brown color
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Decaffeinated Coffee
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