midterm 2 study guide - Midterm 2 Anthrbio 161 Review Sheet...

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Midterm 2 Anthrbio 161 Review Sheet Primate Ecology What are the major food constituents that a primate needs to survive, and what foods provide them? protein - insect prey and young leaves fats and oils - seeds vitamins and minerals - seeds carbohydrates - gum (a substance plants produce in response to physical injury) water - streams, water holes, springs, puddles, fruit, flowers, young leaves, animal prey, underground storage parts of plants How does a primate's body size influence its diet? larger primates generally eat more because require more energy large animals have a higher basal metabolic rate - rate at which animal ex- pends energy to maintain life at rest higher growth rate creates higher demand for energy small primates high energy requirements per unit body weight need high quality food that is easily digestible total requirements are small - food does not have to be abundant large primates low energy requirements per unit body weight food does not need to be easy to digest total requirements large - food must be abundant What are some anatomical adaptations associated with being a frugivore, gum- mivore, folivore or insectivore? frugivore - molars with flatter, more rounded cusps, simple digestive systems but if they have large bodies the stomachs are larger to hold the large quantities of leaves they consume with fruit gumnivore - large and prominent incisors to gouge holes in bark of trees folivore - molars with well developed shearing crests to cut food, most specialized digestive system because must digest large quantities of cellulose and secondary plant compounds insectivore - molars with well developed shearing crests to cut food, higher and more pointed cusps of molars, simple digestive system specialized for absorption How do 1) type of food (e.g. leaves or fruit), 2) dispersion and size of food patches and 3) cost of travel affect feeding and ranging behavior and maximum group size in primates? type of food - fruit is less abundant than certain times of year than foliage, so if they eat a lot of fruit may have to move or be very protective of resources; folivores generally have much smaller home ranges because don’t have to look as hard for food
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dispersion and size of food patches - smaller food patches in a condensed area may lead to more territoriality because will need to protect their area from intruders (resources are valuable and scarce), groups will probably be smaller with a smaller size, dispersion will lead to a lot of small groups cost of travel - more territoriality if travel is more costly because will not want t leave their home range home range - area in which an individual or group of animals travels, feeds, rests, and socializes day range - distance a primate or group of primates travel in one day territory - maintain exclusive access to a fixed area nocturnal - active only during the night
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2011 for the course ANTHRBIO 161 taught by Professor Mitani during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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midterm 2 study guide - Midterm 2 Anthrbio 161 Review Sheet...

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