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FINAL REVIEW SHEET - Review Sheet Anthrbio 161 3rd unit 15...

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Review Sheet Anthrbio 161 3rd unit Chapters 12, 13, 15, 16 and Reserve Readings Lecture: Early Species of Homo How are members of genus Homo recognized in the fossils record? Usually linked to increase in brain size; smallest brain size that can be in homo is 750 cc Also decrease in tooth size What trends in body size, brain size, tooth size, hand anatomy and tool use are initiated with early Homo and then continue in later species of Homo ? Bigger brain, smaller molars and premolars, stone stools – starting with Oldowan toolmakers, manipulative hands, bipedalism What features differentiate the two skulls KNM-ER 1813 and 1470, and why do many paleontologists think the skulls are from different species? 1470 have larger brains, more robust skulls, and larger faces. 1813 have a smaller brain, more gracile skull, and smaller teeth. What is the Oldowan toolkit, and why do archeologists think Oldowan tools were used to butcher animals? Hammer, flake, and core Butchering animals – archeologists have shown that elephant hide can be cut by simple flakes, the Oldowan tools are also often found with dense concentrations of animal bones, bones show cut marks not just teeth marks Also can tell by comparing to modern sites that are not water sorted, and not due to a mass death because the bones are well mixed and many different species are represented Hammer – used to chip flakes off cores (become spherical) Flake – a smaller chip of stone knocked from a larger stone core; “real” tools Core – a piece of stone from which smaller flakes are removed. Cores and/or flakes may themselves be useful as tools. Probably used for cracking bones, maybe chopping trees, potentially less useful Homo habilis KNM ER 1813 Homo rudolfensis – KNM ER 1813 Kenyanthropus : Found in E. Africa 3.5-3.2 mya Not much known because recently discovered Flat face, small teeth, chimp-like brain, thick enamel on molars, small molars Lecture: Later Species of Homo What are the age, geographical distribution, body size, brain size, level of dimorphism, inferred diet and locomotion and tool kit of Homo erectus ? Age: 1.9 - .1 mya Geographical distribution – widely distributed Body size: very robust, long legs, narrow hips, and proportions like those of modern humans; increase in body size Brain size: larger brain (but smaller than modern human) Level of dimorphism: reduced body size dimorphism Inferred diet: emphasis on tearing and biting with incisors, tools associated with butchering – meat eating Locomotion: bipedal; long legs and slender torso suggest it was able to run for long distances; fully terrestrial, efficient biped Tool kit: Acheulean Industry – characterized by the biface; flake a large core on all sides
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to create a flat form with an edge along the circumference -hand ax – teardrop shaped with a sharp point -bifaces have standard forms and standardized proportions Why do paleontologists think the life history, development and social behavior of Homo erectus was quite different from those of the australopiths?
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