terms for final - Elizabeth Weilburg 12/7/10 CLCIV Section...

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Elizabeth Weilburg 12/7/10 CLCIV Section 008 Darius III - Last of Persian Emperors, took throne in 336 BC, defeated by Alexander the Great in battle, which led to the fall of the Persian Empire and the rise of the Macedonian Empire, shift in world balance of power. Portrayed as cowardly by Arrian for fleeing after suffering defeat. Eventually killed by Alexander in 184. Alexander is repeatedly able to recognize, exploit, and anticipate his weaknesses (Granicus, Issus, Gaugamela). Was killed by Alexander. 2. Parmenio - Macedonian general serving under Philip and later Alexander around middle of 4 th century BCE. Member of Old Guard of Philip’s advisors. Advises Alex to wait with attack on Granicus, Alex doesn’t listen and succeeds. Urges sea battle at Miletus, which is a bad idea. Killed for his son, Philotas so-called conspiracy against Alex bc his presence and influence in the army was a danger after his son’s death. 3. Issus - Battle fought 333 B.C.E between Alexander and Darius in which the Macedonians were victorious. Exemplifies the tactical military revolution introduced by Alexander—he studied the Persian army in past battles so he could anticipate their tactics, he pins the Persian center with his right wing and cuts them off from their reserves, makes legitimate use of his light infantry, won by an attack on one side, using mixed infantry and cavalry. 4. Seleucids - empire of the inland persian territories that arose after the death of Seleucus, the last of the new kings to serve on Alexander the Great’s staff. Officially ended in 63 B.C. by Pompey the Great. (David Cholok) It is significant because there was controversy about Philip and Alexander using citizens from their conquered territories in their armies, which was ultimately unsuccessful and disastrous. The Seleucids were not able to exploit the potential manpower resources of their vast territory, and failure to adjust to tactical changes in the state of warfare/adherence to the model of warfare used by Alexander the Great eventually led to the empire’s defeat. * 5. Quinquireme - A improvement on the Hellenistic trireme, requiring 5 men to each oar, instead of 1 man per oar, as with triremes. Quinqueremes were larger, faster, and incorporating multiple banks and added oarsmen to increase the speed of ramming vessels, used increasingly during the punic wars. The technological advancements allowed for fewer well trained oarsmen to propel the ship, allowing only one to dictate the motion of each oar. Carthaginians did not have a navy, but stole a quinquireme from the Carths and constructed 100 based off it, and 20 triremes to contend with the Carthaginians at sea.
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6. Servius Tullius - *King of Rome during the 6th century B.C. who revolutionized organized warfare in Italy by implementing a number of political and military reforms. Servius changed the military organization from warbands to a force of the state by
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terms for final - Elizabeth Weilburg 12/7/10 CLCIV Section...

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