CLCIV Section 008
Last of Persian Emperors, took throne in 336 BC, defeated by Alexander the Great in
battle, which led to the fall of the Persian Empire and the rise of the Macedonian Empire,
shift in world balance of power. Portrayed as cowardly by Arrian for fleeing after
suffering defeat. Eventually killed by Alexander in 184. Alexander is repeatedly able to
recognize, exploit, and anticipate his weaknesses (Granicus, Issus, Gaugamela). Was
killed by Alexander.
- Macedonian general serving under Philip and later Alexander around
middle of 4
century BCE. Member of Old Guard of Philip’s advisors. Advises Alex to
wait with attack on Granicus, Alex doesn’t listen and succeeds. Urges sea battle at
Miletus, which is a bad idea. Killed for his son, Philotas so-called conspiracy against
Alex bc his presence and influence in the army was a danger after his son’s death.
- Battle fought 333 B.C.E between Alexander and Darius in which the
Macedonians were victorious.
Exemplifies the tactical military revolution introduced by
Alexander—he studied the Persian army in past battles so he could anticipate their
tactics, he pins the Persian center with his right wing and cuts them off from their
reserves, makes legitimate use of his light infantry, won by an attack on one side, using
mixed infantry and cavalry.
- empire of the inland persian territories that arose after the death of
Seleucus, the last of the new kings to serve on Alexander the Great’s staff. Officially
ended in 63 B.C. by Pompey the Great. (David Cholok) It is significant because there was
controversy about Philip and Alexander using citizens from their conquered territories in
their armies, which was ultimately unsuccessful and disastrous.
The Seleucids were not
able to exploit the potential manpower resources of their vast territory, and failure to
adjust to tactical changes in the state of warfare/adherence to the model of warfare used
by Alexander the Great eventually led to the empire’s defeat. *
- A improvement on the Hellenistic trireme, requiring 5 men to each oar,
instead of 1 man per oar, as with triremes. Quinqueremes were larger, faster, and
incorporating multiple banks and added oarsmen to increase the speed of ramming
vessels, used increasingly during the punic wars. The technological advancements
allowed for fewer well trained oarsmen to propel the ship, allowing only one to dictate
the motion of each oar. Carthaginians did not have a navy, but stole a quinquireme from
the Carths and constructed 100 based off it, and 20 triremes to contend with the
Carthaginians at sea.