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ids for midterm - Sargon II Neo-Assyrian king famous for...

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Sargon II: Neo-Assyrian king, famous for his letter to the God Assur about his eighth campaign against Urartu in 714 bc, which gave a detailed account of the range of the campaign as well as information on the organization and tactics of the reformed Assyrian army. Displayed increase of royal control over army, use of more developed cavalry with arrows, missile cavalry instead of frontal assault, and explains campaign as a way of collecting tribute from subjects and displaying power. Shows military change via increased efficiency, impact and power of Assyrian empire—he also defeated Babylon in 710-707 Artabanus: Uncle of Persian King Xerxes I, expressed only dissenting opinion in Herodotus against Xerxes’ idea to go to war against the Greeks. Used as a narrative tool by Herodotus to represent the logical advice against invasion that Xerxes’ ignored—that there was considerable danger involved in the invasion given the Greeks’ superior reputations on land/sea, as well as warnings against excessive pride that Herodotus considered harmful. Represents misreadings by Persians of divinity when he has a dream and changes his mind, telling Xerxes he should invade Greece—divinity overtaking logic eventually leads to failure. Revolution in Military Affairs (contrast to Military Revolution): A revolution in military affairs is a battlefield change that doesn’t change the basic social organization , it is often a sudden development on one side of conflict that the other side can match. In contrast, military revolutions change the overall nature and scale of warfare , as well as the political organization , and they have a notable impact on society and the balance of power —they imply a society can make overall better use of their resources . For example, the Assyrian military revolution constituted tactical change from frontal assault to missile cavalry, as well as tighter royal control of the army and reduced power of provincial governors, this greatly expanded Assyrian power and led to the creation of new political entities in response (Urartu and Phyrgia) Pericles: Pericles led the Athenians into the first Peloponnesian war, urging them not to revoke the Megarian decrees (which blocked Megarians, an ally of Sparta, from the Athenian market), and instead to stand strong and not concede anything, and that they should not instigate war with Sparta but they shouldn’t fear war if the Spartans instigate because they are far better equipped with naval power and financial resources, (although this is a speech authored for Pericles by Thucydides, thus it reflects his views). In the archadamian war, Pericles is able to exercise strategic thought in recognizing that they Athenians don’t have a strategic advantage—they are superior by sea but not on land, and so he avoids hoplite battle with the Peloponnesians at Attica and instead relies on the navy to provide resources and allow the plunder of the city. This tactic was greatly
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