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Psyc106 Exam 1 Study Notes

Psyc106 Exam 1 Study Notes - Chapter 1 How to Approach the...

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Chapter 1 How to Approach the Study of Perception 2 Approaches o Psychophysical approach to perception Gustav Fechner Psychophysics: use of quantitative methods to measure relationships between stimuli (physics) and perception (psycho) Ex. Measuring the stimulus-perception relationship by asking whether 2 very similar patches of color are the same or different o Physiological approach to perception Involves measuring the relationship between stimuli and physiological processes (stimulus-physiology relationship ) and between physiological processes and perception (physiology-perception relationship ) Most often studied by measuring electrical responses in the nervous system Can also involve studying anatomy or chemical processes Ex. Stimulus-physiology: Measuring how different colored lights can result in electrical activity generated in neurons in a cat’s cortex Ex. Physiology-perception: a study in which a person’s brain activity is measured as the person describes the color of an object he is seeing o Both aim to explain the mechanisms responsible for perception and how neurons and the brain create perceptions o Cognitive influences on perception : how knowledge and other factors, such as memories and expectations, affect and influence perception Measuring Perception Methods of responding to stimuli o Description phenomenological method First step in studying perception describes what we perceive Very basic level- noticing differences in distance, color, taste, etc. o Recognition: categorize a stimulus by naming it o Detection: quantitative methods for measuring the relationship between stimuli and perception Methods – limits, adjustment, and constant stimuli – are called the classical psychophysical methods because they were the original methods used to measure the simulus-perception relationship Absolute threshold : smallest amount of stimulus energy necessary to detect a stimulus Difference threshold : the smallest difference between two stimuli that a person can detect as the magnitude of the stimulus increases, so does the size of the DL over a fairly arge range of intensities for a number of senses, the ration of the DL to the standard stimulus is constant Weber’s law : DL/S=K K is a constant called the Weber fraction and S is the value of the standard stimulus
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Weber’s law is true for most senses as long as the stimulus intensity is not too close to the threshold The Weber fraction remains relatively constant for a particular sense, but each type of sensor judgment has its own Weber fraction o Magnitude Estimation : measuring perceptions above-threshold Response compression : as intensity is increased, the magnitude increases, but not as rapidly as the intensity Response expansion : as intensity is increased, perceptual magnitude increases more than intensity the relationship between the intensity of a stumulus and our perception of its
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