Chapter_16_Acid_Base_Equilibria[1] - Chapter 16 Acid-Base...

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Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Acids- substances that, when dissolved in water, increase the concentration of H+ ions. Bases- substances that, when dissolved in water, increase the concentration of OH- ions, 16.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases H+ Ion in Water An H + ion is simply a proton with no surrounding valence electrons H H + + : O – H [ H – O – H ] + H Proton-Transfer Reactions HCl(g) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) The HCl is a Bronsted-Lowry Acid A Bronsted-Lowry Acid is a substance (molecule or ion) that can donate a proton to another substance. A Bronsted-Lowry Base is a substance that can accept a proton from another substance. H H Cl – H + : N – H Cl - + [ H – N - H ] + H H NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) This is an Arrhenius Base (NH 3 ) because it increases in OH - . It is a Bronsted Lowry Base because it accepts H + to form NH 4 + . Amphoteric- substance that can act as either a base or an acid. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs In an acid-base reaction, the acid has a conjugate base, and the base has a conjugate acid. HX(aq) + H 2 O(l) X - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq)
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HX is the acid. Since there is a removal of H + from the acid, the conjugate base is X - . Therefore the H 2 O is a base and its conjugate acid is the H 3 O + because there is an additional H+. Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases - The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base - The stronger the base, the weaker its conjugate acid - Strong acids completely transfer their protons to water. - Weak acids partially dissociate in aqueous solutions. -
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course CHEM 1265 taught by Professor Deeter,g during the Spring '09 term at Tulsa Community College.

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Chapter_16_Acid_Base_Equilibria[1] - Chapter 16 Acid-Base...

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