Environmental Terms - Environmental Terms: Development and...

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Environmental Terms: Development and Environmental Thought: Early Humans: Pioneering attitude, small # so little impact Colonial Development: Natural Resources important, colonies produce riches for homeland Utilitarian (Resource Conservation) : Greatest good for most ppl over longest time Altruistic: In nature is the preservation of the world. Nature is important- people are only a part of nature Ecological Land Use: Animals and ecosystem have the right to survive- people are a part of nature, not stewards. Focus on retaining natural systems. Aldo Leopold- Environmentalist- wanted to kill wolves but changed mind Ecology: Study of interactions that determine distribution and abundance of animals (physiological, biotic, abiotic) Environment: The circumstances and conditions that surround an organism Environmental Science: The systematic study of the environment and our proper place in it Ecosystem: Group of Interacting Organisms in their abiotic environment Ecosystem Services (What they provide)- cleans water, soil formation, pest control, pollination, absorbs CO2, produces oxygen Life-cycle Assesment: Attempt to document the total materials and energy of a production system Green Revolution: After WW2 when they started using machines and pesticides to make agriculture more efficient Limiting factor: resource or physical condition that limits growth or reproduction Views: Biocentric- organism centered Anthrocentric- human centered Ecocentric- Ecosystem centered
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Development Philosophies: -Altruistic- in nature is the preservation of the world -Domination of Nature – use of nature for benefit of humans -Utilitarian- greatest good for the most people over the longest period of time -Ecological Land Use- All species/ecosystems have the right to live/be -Sustainable Development- Meet needs of the present without compromising the future Other? Philosophies: Nihilist- no reason to behave morally Universalist- moral by god or reason Utilitarian- greatest good for most people… Relativist- No absolutes Global change over next 50 yrs: -sea levels rise 1-10 m -human population doubles -climate change of 2-5 degrees -25% species become extinct Tragedy of the Commons: People pursue their best interest in a society that believes in freedom of the commons. Do what is best for them but not best for society as a whole. Ex) One man gets many cattle, he makes a profit, but they overgraze the land and everyone else is at a disadvantage. Ex2) Freedom of fishing the seas Ex3) National Parks- open with no limita. There is no technological solution. Ex) farm the seas, develop new strain of wheat. Try to make work calories per person close to zero: No extravagant things- no vacations, no art.
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2011 for the course ENVIRON 201 taught by Professor Jimdiana during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Environmental Terms - Environmental Terms: Development and...

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