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Anthro Review 2 - Anthropology 101 Fall 2010 Prof...

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Anthropology 101, Fall 2010 Third hourly exam Prof. Peters-Golden REVIEW SHEET Boas, Franz - one of the founders of modern anthropology. He studied the Kwakutil language- spoken around the coastal area of Vancouver. Strong believer in linguistic relativity- different grammatical categories produce different categories of thought (opposite of noam chomsky’s view of universal grammar) Bohannan, Laura / Tiv- -Wrote an article called “Shakespeare in the Bush” which accounts her experience of telling the story of Hamlet to the Tiv in Nigeria. Purpose: she retold the story so that it made sense to their culture- they used art and music to interpret Shakespeare. -Storytelling is a very important art form among the Tiv- they rely on the elders to interpret the symbolism. -Stories don’t translate to other cultures -She thought stories were universal, but the Tiv interpreted it differently through their culture Chomsky, Noam- Linguist- Argued that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language, so that all languages have a common structural basis. (He calls this set of rules: universal grammar) -One Single underlined structure - Creole Languages: More mature languages with developed grammatical rules and native speakers. The fact that languages share certain features confirms the idea that Creoles are based on universal grammar Labov, William - sociolinguist- studied the pronunciations of “R” in different contexts. Did a famous study 40 yrs ago in department stores (went to department stores of diff. prestige and saw that ppl of higher prestige pronounced R more clearly.) This is the study of phoenetics Lévi-Strauss, Claude / structuralism - (Structuralist anthropologist) -Human beings inherently classify things around them in terms of binary. - The patterns of myths are ultimately structured by the mind (so myth can be added in terms of binary) - suggested that myths use structuralism- there is a universal pattern to the structure of myths- derived from the shared structure of the mind: said the same basic elements make up the stories told in all societies (folktales all have similar themes) he said the reason for these similarities is the human brain- the structure of the story derives from the human mind. The human brain that we all have in common leads us all to think similarly - Levi Strauss said people inherently want to classify and order things. Marx, Karl- social theorist (along with max weber) who focused on the stratification systems associated with industrialization. Marx observed England and its industrial capitalism and saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp and simple division between 2 opposed classes: the bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the proletariat (property-less workers.) The bourgeoisie were the owners of the factories, mines, large farms and other means of production. The proletariat (or working class) were ppl who had to sell labor to survive.
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