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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW

# INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW - INTRODUCTION...

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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW TOPIC 1: RESEARCH METHODS (CHAPTER 2): The difference between correlation and causation: Finding that 2 variables are correlated tells us that they are related, but it does not necessarily mean that one of the variables influences the other variable in a casual way. Correlations don’t tell us which variable is the cause and which is the effect. Causation: makes, causes, determines, etc. Correlation: relationship, as one increases the other decreases, etc. CORRELATION ≠ CAUSATION What a correlation coefficient means (interpreting research findings): Correlation coefficient : numerical expression of the strength and the direction of a relationship between two variables A correlation coefficient can range from +1.00 (perfect positive correlation) to zero to –1.00 (perfect negative correlation) When there is a positive correlation, it is high on one variable and high on another variable, and vice versa When there is a negative correlation, there is lower scores on a variable, but higher scores on the other, and vice versa Correlation of zero means there is no relationship between the two variables in either the positive or negative direction Strength of Relationship: o Strong 0.7 to 1 (+ or --) o Moderate Identify Vocabulary:

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Independent variable (IV) : Variable whose quantitative value is independently controlled by the researcher o Example: type of film (nonviolent or violent) o Manipulative Dependent variable (DV) : Variable whose quantitative value is expected to depend on the effects of the independent variable o Example: amount of aggression shown by the boys o Measure Confounding (extraneous) variables : make it harder to conclude cause and effect Experimental group : group in an experiment that receives some value of the independent variable o Example: watching the violent film Control group : group in simple experiments that is not exposed to any level of the independent variable and is used for comparisons with the treatment group o Example: Watching the film containing no violence Placebo effect : changes in behavior produced by a conduction in a formal experiment thought to be inert, or inactive, such as inactive pill Experimenter bias : Subtle but potentially powerful unintentional influences on the dependent variable caused by experimenter’s interacting differently with participants in the experimental and the control groups. TOPIC 2: THE BRAIN (CHAPTER 3): How neural transmission works; All-or-none principle; Action potentials: Neural transmission: o Within Cell body o Neurons are wet (sacs full on fluid and bathed in fluid) o Charge of a neuron: negative
o Negative charge attracts positive charged ions (Na+) on outside of neuron o In a resting state, there are 10 times as many positively charge Na+ outside the membrane, than inside making it the source of the neuron’s electrical power.

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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW - INTRODUCTION...

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