Lect 2. Components of Matter-2010

Lect 2. Components of Matter-2010 - Matter (Chemical...

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Matter (Chemical Properties) Chemical States of Matter Elements Substances that cannot be decomposed into simple substances by a chemical reaction Compounds Substances composed of two or more elements chemically combined Mixtures Matter that can be separated into two or more substances
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Chemical Symbols H Hydrogen C Carbon O Oxygen N Nitrogen Fe Iron Na Sodium K Potassium Hg Mercury Si Silicon Al Aluminum P Phosphorus
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Chemical Elements ~ 112 elements ~89 in "quantitative" amounts ~50 of biological or practical importance Earth's Crust/Atmosphere/Ocean Human body % % Oxygen O 49.1 Oxygen O 64.6 Silicon Si 26.1 Carbon C 18.0 Aluminum Al 7.5 Hydrogen H 10.0 Iron Fe 4.7 Nitrogen N 3.1 Calcium Ca 3.4 Calcium Ca 1.9 Sodium Na 2.6 Phosphorus P 1.1 Potassium K 2.4 Potassium K Magnesium Mg 1.9 Hydrogen H 0.9 Titanium Ti 0.6 ___ 99.8 Universe % Hydrogen H 91 Helium He 9 Earth's Core Iron, Nickel Liquid Elements Mercury, Bromine, Cesium Gaseous Elements Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine
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Elements in the Earth’s Crust and in the human body
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Elements Exist as multi-atom lattices, as molecules or as atoms Metallic lattices Na sodium Ca calcium Molecular O 2 oxygen N 2 nitrogen P 4 phosphorus S 8 sulfur Monatomic He helium Ne neon
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Representation of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
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Compounds and Atomic Symbols CO Carbon monoxide CO 2 Carbon dioxide N 2 O 3 Dinitrogen trioxide CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride UF 6 Uranium hexafluoride H 2 O Water NH 3 Ammonia Compounds are represented by atomic symbols with simplest ratio of atoms present indicated by subscripts
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. Heterogeneous Mixtures Separation of components of a mixture A mixture of potassium dichromate and iron fillings Mixtures (of elements and/or compounds)
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Separation of mixtures of liquids by distillation . Homogeneous Mixtures alcohol/water
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The Nature of Matter Democritus (370 BC) Is matter continuously divisible? “Atomos” Lavoisier Law of Conservation of Mass Matter is not created nor destroyed but is converted from one form to another Law of Definite Proportions (constant composition) Pure compounds always contain the same elements in the same proportion by mass. Dalton Atomic Theory 1. All matter is comprised of tiny indivisible particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element are identical but are different from atoms of another element 3. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in definite fixed proportions
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Law of Conservation of Mass - Lavoisier Matter can not be created or destroyed but can only be converted from one form to another Mercury oxide Mercury + Oxygen 20.0g 18.5g + 1.5 g = 20.0g Law of Constant Composition Pure compounds always contain the same elements in the same proportion by mass. Mercury oxide
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2011 for the course CHEM 211 taught by Professor Papanastasiou during the Spring '07 term at George Mason.

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Lect 2. Components of Matter-2010 - Matter (Chemical...

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