Lect 8 Electronic Structure-Periodic Properties-2010

Lect 8 Electronic Structure-Periodic Properties-2010 -...

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Electronic Structure of Atoms The Periodic Table Periodic Properties
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Solutions of Wave Equation for the H atom Each allowed mathematical solution describes the “behavior” of an electron in the H atom and is called an orbital Each orbital is characterized by a set of values for 3 quantum numbers, n, l and m l Each orbital has a definite energy Each orbital can be converted to a probability function
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Allowed values for quantum numbers Principal quantum number, n n= 1, 2, 3, 4,. . Angular momentum quantum number, l  l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …n-1
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l = 0 1 2 3 orbital label = s p d f Angular momentum quantum number Angular momentum quantum number l = 0, s orbital l = 1, p orbital l = 2, d orbital l = 3, f orbital n = 1, l = 0 1s orbital n = 3, l = 2 3d orbital n = 4, l = 1 4p orbital n = 4, l = 3 4f orbital
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Orbital Energies of the Hydrogen Atom
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A Representation of Electron Spin
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The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that No two electrons in any atom can have an identical set of values for the four quantum numbers . Since an orbital is characterized by 3 quantum numbers, and there are only two spin quantum numbers, an orbital can hold at most two electrons, but only if the electrons have opposite spin quantum
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The maximum number of electrons that can occupy orbitals and sub-shells Orbital Number of Orbitals Maximum Number of Electrons in in sub shell s ( l = 0) 1 2 p ( l = 1) 3 6 d ( l =2) 5 10 f ( l =3) 7 14
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Orbital Energies of the Hydrogen Atom
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same shell into sub-levels of differing energy. 2s
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Lect 8 Electronic Structure-Periodic Properties-2010 -...

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