Lect 11. Theories of Covalent Bonding-2010

Lect 11. Theories of Covalent Bonding-2010 - Theories of...

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Theories of Covalent Bonding Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Valence Bond Theory
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Bonding in planar triangular BF 3 sp 2 hybridization of boron’s 2s and 2p atomic orbitals
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Bonding in the tetrahedral CH 4 molecule sp 3 hybridization of carbon’s 2s and 2p atomic orbitals
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C atom (ground state) 2s 2p Energy 2s 2p 1s 1s C atom (promoted)
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C atom (ground state) Energy 1s 2p 2s sp 3 1s sp 3 1s C atom (hybridized state) C atom (in CH 4 ) C-H bonds
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Bonding in H 2 O O atom (ground state) Energy 1s 2p 2s 1s 1s O atom (hybridized state) O atom (in H 2 O) O-H bonds lone pairs
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Bonding in NH and H O 4 electron pairs - sp 3 hybridization
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Hybrid Orbitals and Spatial Arrangements
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Hybrid Orbitals – Electron Pairs Hybrid Orbitals Geometric arrangements of electron pairs Number of Electron Pairs sp Linear 2 sp 2 Trigonal planar 3 sp 3 Tetrahedral 4 sp 3 d Trigonal bipyramidal 5 sp 3 d 2 Octahedral 6
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Hybrid Orbitals Number of electron pairs Geometric arrangements of electron pairs Hybrid Orbitals 2 Linear sp 3 Trigonal planar sp 2 4 Tetrahedral sp 3 5 Trigonal bipyramidal sp 3 d 6 Octahedral sp 3 d 2
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Two “electron pairs” (linear arrangement). sp hybridization of carbon
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2011 for the course CHEM 211 taught by Professor Papanastasiou during the Spring '07 term at George Mason.

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Lect 11. Theories of Covalent Bonding-2010 - Theories of...

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