sy4 - Environment and Urbanization http/

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View Full Document Right Arrow Icon Environment and Urbanization DOI: 10.1177/095624789600800211 1996; 8; 9 Environment and Urbanization Carolyn Stephens inequality Healthy cities or unhealthy islands? The health and social implications of urban The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: On behalf of: International Institute for Environment and Development can be found at: Environment and Urbanization Additional services and information for Email Alerts: Subscriptions: Reprints: Permissions: by on October 12, 2008 Downloaded from
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9 Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 8, No. 2, October 1996 CITY INEQUALITY Healthy cities or unhealthy islands? The health and social implications of urban inequality Carolyn Stephens “No man is an Island , complete in itself; every man is a piece of the Continent , a part of the whole ; if a piece is washed away by the Sea , Europe is the less, as well as if a Promontory were, as well as if a House of your friends or of your own were; any man’s death diminishes me , be- cause I am involved with Mankind ; And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; It tolls for thee .” John Donne, Meditations XVII (1609). SUMMARY: This paper suggests that governments and interna- tional agencies must address the large and often growing levels of inequality within most cities if health is to be improved and poverty reduced. It describes the social and health implications of inequalities within cities and discusses why descriptions of the physical symptoms of poverty (and their health implications) are more common than analyses of the structural systems which produce and perpetuate poverty. It also describes the health prob- lems from which low-income groups in urban areas suffer more than richer groups including those that are not linked to poor sanitary conditions and those that are more linked to relative poverty (and thus the level of inequality) than to absolute pov- erty. I. INTRODUCTION - THE PROSPECTS OF AN EQUITABLE URBAN ENVIRONMENT THIS PAPER PRESENTS an overview of the health and social implications of urban inequalities and inequity. It aims to build on previous work by the author and to develop the ideas raised in previous editions of Environment and Urbanization on urban poverty. (1) By writing directly about urban inequality and in- equity, rather than urban poverty, the paper intends to stimu- late discussion on the wider issues of poverty’s relation to wealth. By using health and social impacts of urban inequality and in- Carolyn Stephens is a lecturer in Environmental Health and Policy at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, where she has worked since obtaining a masters degree in 1988. Her work has included a range of research involving the health sector, and environ- mental health issues. She is honorary research associate of
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