sw15 - Soil Fundamentals Arcanum Arcanum Mysterious...

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Unformatted text preview: Soil Fundamentals Arcanum Arcanum Mysterious knowledge known only to the initiated ? What is Soil? What It is not Dirt What is Soil? What …a natural body consisting of horizontal layers of mineral and organic constituents of variable thicknesses which differ from the original material in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Joffe, 1949 What is Soil? What A dynamic natural body composed of mineral and organic materials and living forms in which plants grow. The collection of natural bodies occupying the earth’s surface that support plants and have varying properties due to the integrated effects of climate and life acting upon geologic materials, mediated by relief (topography) and time Brady and Weil, 2000 What is Soil? What …unconsolidated surficial material Short-sighted Engineer, 1985 What is Soil? Agriculture Ecology Environment Turfgrass Porous Medium Voids Avenues Storage Distribution Movement Solids Interactive Media Minerals Organic matter Reactivity Idealized Surface Soil 50% Solids 50% Pore Space Organic Matter Minerals Functions of Soil Medium for Plant Growth Physical Support Gas exchange Water movement/retention Temperature control Nutrient source Regulator of Water Supplies Infiltration Run-off Storage/Movement Purification Recycler of Raw Materials • Nutrient reservoir/recycler • Organic -> mineral nutrients • Carbon reservoir Habitat for Terrestrial Organisms Macroscopic organisms Microorganisms Engineering Medium Drainage Mineralogy Compressibility Density Sample Extra Credit: 1. Soil consists of approximately ___% solids and ___% pore space. 2. The soil solid phase consists of what two components? 3. Identify one function of soils From Where Does Soil Originate? Fundamental Soil Genesis Soil Forming Processes Additions Losses Transformations Translocations Rain, Dust, Organic Matter, Nutrients Nutrients, Erosion, Leaching, Organic Matter Decomposition, Weathering, Oxidation Gravity, Evaporation, Organisms Soil Forming Factors Parent Material Climate Organisms Relief (Topography) Time Original Material Temperature, Moisture Vegetation, Macro, Micro Altitude, Slope, Aspect Controls extent of other factors CROPT Parent Material The original material from which soils form Sources of Parent Material Residual Alluvial Marine Eolian Glacial Formed in place from rocks and minerals Deposited by rivers and streams Deposited by oceans Deposited by wind Deposited by ice River Ice Wind Florida Marine and Alluvial Deposits http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/movies/tectonic.mov Approximately 250 million years ago Breakup of Pangaea Late Triassic, early Jurassic ~200Mya - 250 Mya Rifting phase: Creation of the Atlantic Ocean Approximately 150 million years ago Stable, shallow sea floor Subject to marine sedimentation Late Jurassic Sedimentation: settling of particles from a fluid due to gravity For the next several million years the area was dominated by carbonate sedimentation Carbonate Deposition/Sedimentation Marine Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate CaCO3 MgCO3 Shallow Carbonate Platform Sedimentation on the Florida Peninsula Sediments Sediments Rising sea levels allow Marine sediments to become suspended in water and drift over the platform Sandy and Clayey Sediments Cover the Carbonate Platform Transformation of Parent Material Soil Horizons Roughly parallel layers in the soil with varying composition and properties Next: Soil Master Horizons ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course SWS 3022 taught by Professor Bonczek during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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sw15 - Soil Fundamentals Arcanum Arcanum Mysterious...

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