sw19 - Chemical Contaminants Nutrients Pesticides Metals...

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Chemical Contaminants Nutrients Pesticides Metals Salts Organics
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Nutrients Nitrogen Phosphorus NO 3 - NH 4 + HPO 4 -2 H 2 PO 4 - Animal Wastes, Agricultural Runoff, Sewage Discharge, OSWT
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Primary Productivity All life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. In terrestrial ecosystems, these are mainly plants, while in aquatic ecosystems algae and phytoplankton are primarily responsible. N and P stimulate primary productivity
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Excess Nutrients Over-stimulate Primary Productivity Decreased light penetration Decreased oxygen content Changes in species diversity Urban Agriculture Wastewater
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Heavy Metals and Metalloids
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Arsenic Erosion of natural deposits; pesticide waste, runoff from glass & electronics production wastes, treated lumber, groundwater Mercury Erosion of natural deposits; discharge from refineries and factories; runoff from landfills, coal burning Lead Corrosion of household plumbing systems; natural deposits, paint, fuels, electronics Heavy Metals and Metalloids
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Lead found in blood sample from 1 of 10 Washingtonians Arsenic found in urine samples from 4 of 10 Washingtonians Mercury found in hair samples from 10 of 10 Washingtonians Mercury, Arsenic, and Lead
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Forms and Solubility HgCl 2 soluble PbCO 3 poorly soluble FePO 4 poorly soluble AlPO 4 poorly soluble KH 2 PO 4 soluble CdCO 3 poorly soluble CdCl 2 soluble The degree to which contaminants impact soil and water quality is often determined by their solubility Pb 2+ Hg 2+ PO 4 -3 NH 4 + NO 3 - Cd 2+ Acids can alter solulbilities
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Solid (unavailable) dissolved (available) Availability and Form of Metals Acid dissolution of metals increases their mobility PbCO 3 + H + Pb 2+ + HCO 3 - Solid (unavailable) dissolved (available) CdSO 4 + H + Cd 2+ + SO 4 -2
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There are approximately 420,000 abandoned mines in the states of California, Arizona and Nevada Mine Tailings FeS 2H SO oxygen water Direct toxicity plus dissolution of associated metal contaminants such as arsenic, lead, and cadmium Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Al PbCO 3 + H + Pb 2+ + HCO 3 - solid soluble 2H + + SO 4 2-
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Soil, Groundwater and Arsenic
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Inorganic Forms of Arsenic AsO 4 -3 AsO 3 -3 Arsenite Arsenate Low Oxygen High Oxygen
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course SWS 3022 taught by Professor Bonczek during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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sw19 - Chemical Contaminants Nutrients Pesticides Metals...

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