Sw23 - Soil Taxonomy and Classification Soil Taxonomy Hierarchy Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family 250 1400 8000 19,000 Kingdom Phylum

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Unformatted text preview: Soil Taxonomy and Classification Soil Taxonomy Hierarchy Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series 12 63 250 1400 8000 19,000 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Diagnostic Horizons Surface Horizons: Mollic- thick, dark colored, high %B.S., structure Umbric – same as mollic, but lower B.S. Ochric – pale, low O.M., thin Histic – High O.M., thick, wet, dark Sub-Surface Horizons: Argillic – illuvial accum. of clay (high activity) Kandic – accum. of clay (low activity) Spodic – Illuvial O.M. accumulation (Al and/or Fe) Oxic – highly weathered, kaolinite, Fe and Al oxides Albic – light colored, elluvial, low reactivity Soil Taxonomy Soil Diagnostic Epipedons Diagnostic Subsurface horizons Moisture Regimes Temperature Regimes Age Texture Depth Moisture Regimes Wet Aquic – poor aeration, reduced iron Udic- dry < 90 total days Ustic - limited but is present Aridic- moist <90 total days Xeric - dry Dry Temperature Regimes cold Cryic – icy cold Frigid – lower than 8oC Mesic – between 8 and 15oC Thermic – between 15 and 22oC Hyperthermic - > 22oC Hot Soil Orders Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series Soil forming processes, presence or Absence of major diagnostic horizons Similar genesis 12 63 250 1400 8000 19,000 Soil Orders Soil Entisol Histosol Inceptisol Alfisol Ultisol Spodosol Mollisol Oxisol Andisol Gelisol Aridisol Vertisol EntHistInceptAlfUltSpodMollOxAndGelAridVertRecent Histic (organic) Inception Television alien Ultimate Spodos (wood ash) Mollis (soft) oxide Ando (black) Gelid (cold) Arid (dry) Verto (turn) Soil Orders in Florida Soil •Entisols – little development, usually A-C horizons, ochric epipedon •Inceptisols – A little more development, Bw horizons, ochric, umbric epipedon •Alfisols – Argillic/Kandic horizon (Bt) less than 2 m, base saturation is > 35% •Ultisols – Argillic/Kandic horizon (Bt) less than 2 m, base saturation is < 35% •Mollisols – Mollic epipedon, dark, high organic matter •Spodosols – Spodic horizon (Bh), ochric, umbric epipedon •Histosols – Organic soil, histic epipedon Entisols Inceptisols Alfisols 0 A A Bw C C C 2 A E Bt Bt C C C Ultisols A E Bw Mollisols A Spodosols Histosols A E O Bh meters Entisols Ent Young Soils Weaklly developed Sandy or clayey Ochric Epipedon A – C profiles Entisols Dry, sandy uplands Turkey Oak Wiregrass Taxonomic Peculiarity A horizon 2 meters (200 cm) C horizon Bt Inceptisols Incept Ap horizon Little Development Ochric, Histic, or Umbric epipedon One or more subsurface horizons Weakly developed Contains many unweathered minerals Bw horizon C horizon Histosols Hist • • • • • Peat or muck > 20% organic matter Agriculturally valuable Sometimes used as fuel Often over impermeable material Histosols Alfisols Mollic/Umbric/Ochric epipedon A horizon E horizon Bt horizon (argillic, kandic) base saturation > 35% Btg horizon Ultisols A horizon E horizon Bt horizon Mollic/umbric/Ochric epipedon Argillic or Kandic horizon Base saturation of Bt < 35% Ultisols and Alfisols Mixed Hardwood Forests Spodosols Associated with acidic vegetation Subsoil accumulation of organic matter with aluminum and/or iron Formed under Wet acidic conditions Poorly or Very poorly drained Pine Flatwoods State Soil of Florida Spodosols Pine Flatwoods (wet, acidic) Mollisols Few in Florida Mollic Epipedon High organic matter Thick surface horizon Highly productive Many with argillic Poorly-drained Surface % B.S. > 50% Mollisols Grasslands Soil Orders Soil Weathering and development slight Entisols Histosols Inceptisols Alfisols Mollisols Ultisols Spodosols Strong Florida Soil Orders Spodosols Entisols Ultisols Alfisols Histisols Inceptisols Mollisols 8.4 million acres 7.5 6.9 4.6 4.0 1.0 <1.0 * Extra Credit: 1.The most dominant soil order in Florida is ___ 2. Entisols are old soils. T/F 3. Highly developed soils which occur under acidic conditions in pine flatwoods are ___________ 4. Soils with thick organic epipedons are in what soil order? 5. For classification purposes, soil are sampled to what depth? Soil Taxonomy Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series 12 63 250 1400 8000 19,000 Soil forming processes / diagnostic horizons Genetic similarity: Wetness, climate, vegetation Moisture Conditions Wet Aquic – poor aeration, reduced iron Udic- dry < 90 total days Ustic - limited but is present Aridic- moist <90 total days Xeric - dry Dry Temperature Conditions cold Cryic – icy cold Frigid – lower than 8oC Mesic – between 8 and 15oC Thermic – between 15 and 22oC Hyperthermic - > 22oC Hot Suborders Temperature, moisture, diagnostic horizons Suborder Examples Aquod Udult Udoll Xeroll Ochrept Umbrept alboll very wet spodosol wet ultisol wet mollisol dry mollisol Soil Taxonomy Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family Series 12 63 250 1400 8000 19,000 Soil forming processes / diagnostic horizons Soil moisture conditions, diagnostic horizon Arrangement of Diagnostic horizons Great Groups Based on diagnostic horizons and their arrangements or other features like age, color, texture Arg - argillic horizon present Pale - old Kand - kandic horizon present Hapl - minimum horizonation quartzi – quartz sand Hum - humid Greater Specificity Order Ultisol Mollisol Alfisol Ultisol Suborder Udult Aquoll Udalf Udult Great Group paleudult argiaquoll paleudalf hapludult Sub group Moisture, sandiness, depth, color Example Typic Arenic Grossarenic shallow sand deeper sand deep sand Typic paleudult – shallow depth to the Bt Grossarenic quartzipsamment Subgroup Great group suborder order Families Properties important to growth of plant roots Particle size Sandy Loamy Fine loamy Clayey mineralogy Siliceous Kaolinitic Smectitic Oxidic temperature oC Frigid < 8 Mesic 8-15 Thermic 15-22 Hyperthermic > 22 Series Horizon number, order, thickness, texture, structure, Color, Organic matter, pH, accumulations Order Mollisol Sub-order G. Group Aquoll Argiaqoll Sub-group typic Argiaquoll Family Series typic argiaquoll Brookston loamy siliceous Cordova Westland Alachua County Apopka loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic grossarenic paleudult Ledwith fine, smectitic, hyperthermic mollic albaqualf Surrency loamy, siliceous, thermic, arenic paleaquult Pomona sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic, ultic, haplaquod paleudult order Suborder great group sub-group family albaqualf paleaquult haplaquod Alachua County paleudult Great group suborder order albaqualf Great group suborder order Study Guide will be posted this afternoon Review session on Monday Exam III is on Wednesday ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course SWS 3022 taught by Professor Bonczek during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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Sw23 - Soil Taxonomy and Classification Soil Taxonomy Hierarchy Order Suborder Great group Sub group Family 250 1400 8000 19,000 Kingdom Phylum

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