sw29 - Flocculation, Dispersion, Iron, Aluminum Four...

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Flocculation, Dispersion, Iron, Aluminum
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Kaolinite Smectite Vermiculite Illite Four Minerals CEC, Expansibility
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1. Kaolinite 1. Has low CEC Reason: limited isomorphous substitution (Al for Si in tetrahedra) 2. Is non-expanding Reason: layers are “glued” shut by hydrogen bonds 3. Cation adsorption is on the outer mineral surfaces Reason: layers are “glued” shut by hydrogen bonds
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2. Smectite 1. Has high CEC Reason: abundant isomorphous substitution (Mg for Al) 2. Is highly expanding 3. Cation adsorption is in the interlayers of mineral Reason: layers are not “glued” shut by hydrogen bonds Allowing easy movement of water and hydrated cations to the interlayer regions Reason: layers are not “glued” shut by hydrogen bonds Allowing easy migration of water and hydrated cations into the interlayer regions
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3. Vermiculite 1. Has high CEC Reason: abundant isomorphous substitution (Al for Si) 2. Is moderately expanding 3. Cation adsorption is in the interlayers of mineral Reason: layers are not “glued” shut by hydrogen bonds Reason: layers are not “glued” shut by hydrogen bonds, but interlayer cations are very close to the source of the negative charge (the tetrahedra) holding the layers together.
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1. Has low CEC Reason: abundant isomorphous substitution (Al for Si), but potassium ions fit well in cavities on the surface of the interlayers, holding them tightly together. 2. Is non-expanding 3. Cation adsorption is mostly on external mineral surfaces Reason: potassium ions fit well in cavities on the surface of the interlayers, holding them tightly together. Reason: potassium ions fit well in cavities on the surface of
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sw29 - Flocculation, Dispersion, Iron, Aluminum Four...

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