yg9 - Crime& Deviance Week 6 Remainder of lecture...

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Unformatted text preview: Crime & Deviance Week 6 Remainder of lecture Deviance & Crime • Crime : Any act that violates a formal normative code that has been enacted by a legally constituted body • Strain Theory (Merton, 1957): Excessive deviance is a by-product of inequality within societies that promote certain norms and version of social reality yet provide unequal means of meeting or attaining them, Individuals respond to this strain either by conforming or by changing the goals or means of obtaining goals accepted by society – Five potential reactions to the tension between endorsed values (financial success) and the means ( hard work) of achieving them 1. Conformists – accepts the means & values as important even if the goal isn’t achieved; most people conform 2. Innovators – accept values & reject means; seek out new/innovative means to achieve goals 3. Ritualists – accept means & reject values; conform even though they do not believe in the values 4. Rebels – reject both & substitute new ones 5. Retreatists – reject both and replace them with nothing – Theory does not adequately explain crimes without financial motivation Deviance & Crime • Broken Windows Theory (Zimbardo, 1969): Minor acts of deviance can spiral into severe crime and social decay. Atmosphere and context are keys whether deviance occurs or spirals – Ex: Zimbardo placing unoccupied cars w/no license plates, hoods up, otherwise good condition in two neighborhoods -> Palo Alto (wealthy, mostly white) & Bronx (poor, mostly black); what happened? • Criminal subcultures – Cohen (1955) expanded on Sutherland’s differential association and incorporated 5 norms & values that lower-class gang members were socialized in to: • Nonutilitarianism • Maliciousness • Negativism • Short-run hedonism • Group autonomy – Miller believed that it wasn’t just the lower class gang members that differed from...
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yg9 - Crime& Deviance Week 6 Remainder of lecture...

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