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Unformatted text preview: Roman History Final Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus • 44BC- after Caesar is murdered the conspirators have no plan, the population and Caesar’s veterans very hostile Marcus Antonius • Secures Caesar’s papers and funds from widow Calpurnia • Wins support of Lepidus, Caesar’s master of the horse, Lepidus has troops outside city • March 17 there is compromise between Caesarians and Republicans- 1.) Caesar’s acta given force of law 2.) Amnesty for conspirators 3.) Caesar granted a public funeral • Antonius publishes Caesar’s will, Gaius Octavian (Caesar’s grandnephew) is named primary heir and adopted to become Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus • March 20 is Caesar’s funeral, Antonius delivers eulogy and funeral turns to riot • Brutus and Cassius flee Rome • Antonius takes over with money and support of troops The Rise of Octavian • At 18 he reaches Rome in April of 44BC and gains support of those close to Caesar and capitalizes on his name and the fact that Antonius is too nice to conspirators • Both Caesarians and conspirators dissatisfied- obtains governorship of Cisalpine and Tansalpine Gaul, and army and good location to watch Rome • Antonius goes to Cisalpine Gaul to take governorship from Decimus Brutus who will not surrender • Octavian raises private army of Caesar’s vets • At Cicero’s request Octavian made senator and praetor and is used against Antonius • 43BC Octavian is sent to relieve Decimus Brutus at Mutina, defeats Antonius who retreats to Rome in April, both consuls are killed and Octavian is left in command of consular armies • Senate reasserts authority, Antonius and Lepidus outlawed, Brutus and Cassius control Macedonia and Syria, Decimus Brutus given command of consular armies in Italy which is attempt to phase out Octavian • Octavian refuses to give up power, marches on Rome and senate gives him consulship • Lepidus and Antonius march into Cisalpine Gaul • Octavian, Lepidus and Antonius control armies so they control the state, amnesty taken from conspirators, Antonius and Lepidus no longer public enemies 43BC: Formation of Second Triumvirate • Octavian, Lepidus, Antonius become “board of three for putting the state in order” for five years, office established by law, power to make laws, exercise jurisdiction and nominate magistrates and governors • Provinces divided among three • Proscriptions of political enemies and wealthy to raise money for troops, confiscate land, Cicero proscribed and murdered on December 7, 43BC January 1, 42BC • Julius Caesar declared God by senate, Octavian is son of god • Lepidus left in control of Italy, Octavian and Antonius face Brutus and Cassius in the East • October 42BC: Battle of Philippi in Macedonia, Brutus and Cassius defeated-commit suicide-republic is dead From Philippi to Actium 42BC • Octavian and Antonius divide provinces, Octavian takes the West, Antonius the East to restore order and raise money, Lepidus’ role is fading...
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- Spring '11
- History, Praetorian guard, Antonius 43BC Octavian, Antonius Antonius divorces, Octavian Octavian refuses