Lecture Notes for Exam

Lecture Notes for Exam - Lecture Notes for Exam #2...

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Lecture Notes for Exam #2 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION We can communicate nonverbally, but not all of our behavior is communicative. Therefore, we use the word ‘cues’ Nonverbal is communicating without using words Nonverbal cues are human actions, intentional or unintentional, that affect interpretation within an interaction Multiple codes (systems of meaning) o Gestures o Facial Expressions o Tone of voice (voice quality) o Physical appearance (fashion choices, present yourself in a particular way) o Space/Distance (how we position ourselves) o Physical touch Continuous flow (of these codes, nonverbal cues cannot be stopped, they are more natural and spontaneous than words Includes culturally universal and culturally specific dimensions (e.g.- smiling and frowning is universal) Types of messages conveyed nonverbally: o Initial impressions o Relational Messages (liking, status, responsiveness) o Emotional Expression Relation to Verbal Messages o Repeat o Complement o Contradict o Substitute o Accent/Emphasize o Regulate (e.g.- turn taking in a conversation) Illustrators are gestures that accompany speech and add to the meaning Regulators are “traffic signals” of conversation (continue, stop, my turn) Affect displays convey emotional states (sad, happy) Adaptors are behaviors people use to adapt to stress (fidgeting) Kinesics (movement, e.g.- gestures) o Emblems direct verbal translations (e.g.- thumbs up, or OK) o Illustrators illustrating through us of hands, depicting the action o Affect displays Emotional display, mood (posture, facial expression) o Regulators Regulate conversation (e.g.-looking at watch to end) o Adaptors Asking somebody to speak louder, leaning forward to hear better (adapt to the environment) hot/cold temperature Kinesics Facial Expressions Management o Intensify o Deintensify o Neutralize o Mask Proxemics (use of space)
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Lecture Notes for Exam #2 o Interaction distance people are comfortable at different distances depending on relationship, context, and the culture (different cultures have different distance standards) o Tone and Quantity of interaction Spacial arrangement or “semi-fixed” space (eg furniture arrangement in the classroom) Fixed Space (architecture, urban planning, e.g.- embassies) o Expressing territoriality e.g.- claiming seat in the class, Paralinguistics (Vocalics, Voice) o Vocal qualities: pitch, tone, volume, rate, inflection (pattern, e.g.- always ending in high pitch, etc) variety o Vocalization: sounds that aren’t words o Vocal segregates: vocalized pauses, fillers (“um,” “like) o Accent or dialect o Signals: confidence level, emotional state, relations cues (how to “take” the message) Heptics (touch) o Cultural Factor (contact vs. non-contact culture) o Positive emotion, liking (PDA) o Control (Guiding with the hand, pushing) o Politeness (shaking hands) o Task role touching (hairdresser, doctor, masseuse)
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Lecture Notes for Exam - Lecture Notes for Exam #2...

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