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Unformatted text preview: COMM 25: Exam #1 Review Sheet HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS o Gorgias “It isn’t”: nothing really exists, you can’t convey reality. Euepia is beautiful speech, detailed language that plays on emotion o Protagoras “Man is the measure of all things”: Each person decides what is real for themselves. Orthopeia is accurate speech that captures the reality of the situation as close as possible. o Plato “Concepts are unchanging and can be known” The Gorgias Claimed rhetoric to be false art and art can be directed to the soul or the body and be remedial or prescriptive. Remedial is fixing, solution is the art; and prescriptive prevents things from going wrong. The Phaedrus 20 years later Plato claimed rhetoric as true art of “soul leading”. There are three standards to define true art: o 1) Knows its object (soul and its type) o 2) Has method and theory (adapt) o 3) Practiced for benefit of object (ethical) o Aristotle Functional approach, 5 canons to persuasion Invention Arrangement Style Memory Delivery • Ethos personal character • Pathos the ability to arouse emotion • Logos the wording and logic of the message o Four approaches to theory o Classical Preservation • Use rules of the classics, such as Aristotle, etc. o Psychological/ Faculty • More scientific: understanding, imagination, passion and motivation o Belletristic • Artistic approach to drama, poetry, etc o Elocutionary • Presentation/delivery; elaborate system for display of emotion (posture, hand gestures, etc…) o Empirical/Scientific (psychological model) • Interest in how different variables affect communication (cause and effect) o Rhetorical/Humanistic (social constructionist model) • Interest in how symbolic activity shapes public response. Approach believes that people have free will and are unpredictable DEFINITIONS, MODELS, AND PERSPECTIVES • Issues in defining communication (breadth, intentionality, sender or receiver-based and use of symbols) • Models representing different perspectives toward communication o Psychological Machine metaphor- “mechanistic” process “Noise” is distraction Transfer of meaning o Social Constructionist Construction metaphor Different languages and cultures have different beliefs, values and roles and people are representatives of culture/society Being aware of influences we have and around us o Pragmatic Chess metaphor Patterned interaction with rules and goals DECODING MESSAGES • Definition of perception o Internal representation/schemata • Constructivism/Personal Construct Theory o Prototype- Ideal example o Personal Constructs- bipolar scales of judgment o Stereotypes- Predictive generalizations o Scripts- mindless processing of routines ENCODING MESSAGES • Characteristics/definition of language Rule governed symbol system that allows users to generate meaning and define reality. It is arbitrary and conventional. to generate meaning and define reality....
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course COMM 025 taught by Professor Miller during the Spring '11 term at GWU.
- Spring '11