Chapter 7 Outline

Chapter 7 Outline - 7 Learning and Conditioning...

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7. Learning and Conditioning Conditioning involves associations between environmental stimuli and responses. Classical Conditioning The original reflex consists of an unconditioned stimulus (US) , a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning, and an unconditioned response (UR) , a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning Learning occurs when a neutral stimulus is regularly paired with an unconditioned stimulus The neutral stimulus then becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) , which elicits a learned or conditioned response (CR) that is usually similar or related to the original, unlearned one The procedure by which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus eventually became known as classical conditioning Principles of classical conditioning o Extinction Conditioned responses do not necessarily last forever If, after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response generally disappears and extinction is said to have occurred The reappearance of the response, called spontaneous recovery , explains why completely eliminating a conditioned response often requires more than one extinction session o Higher-order conditioning Sometimes a neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus by being paired with an already established CS, a procedure known as higher-order conditioning higher order conditioning may contribute to the formation of prejudices o Stimulus generalization and discrimination After a stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus for some response, other, similar stimuli may produce a similar reaction – a phenomenon known as stimulus generalization The mirror image of stimulus generalization is stimulus discrimination , in which different responses are made to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus in some way What is actually learned in classical conditioning?
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o For classical conditioning to be most effective, the stimulus to be conditioned should precede the unconditioned stimulus o Many psychologists contend that what an animal or person actually learns in classical conditioning is not merely an association between two paired stimuli that occur close together in time, but rather information conveyed by one stimulus about another Classical conditioning in real life Learning to like o Classical conditioning plays a big role in our emotional responses to objects, people, symbols, events, and places o Many advertising techniques take advantage of classical conditioning’s role in emotional responses
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course PS 101 taught by Professor Hoffman during the Fall '07 term at BU.

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Chapter 7 Outline - 7 Learning and Conditioning...

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