Chapter 13 Outline Part 2

Chapter 13 Outline Part 2 - 13. Development over the Life...

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13. Development over the Life Span Socialization – the process by which children learn the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations required of them by their society or culture From Conception through the First Year Maturation – the sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics Prenatal Development o Prenatal development is divided into three stages: the germinal, the embryonic, and the fetal o The germinal stage begins at fertilization, when the male sperm unites with the female ovum; the fertilized single-celled egg is called a zygote o Once implantation is completed, about two weeks after fertilization, the embryonic stage begins, lasting until the eighth week after conception o After eight weeks, the fetal stage begins. The organism, now called a fetus , further develops the organs and systems that existed in rudimentary form in the embryonic stage o Fathers play an important role in prenatal development o During a woman’s pregnancy, some harmful influences can cross the placental barrier German measles can affect the fetus’s eyes, ears, and heart X-rays or other radiation and toxic substances can cause fetal deformities and cognitive abnormalities that can last throughout life Sexually transmitted diseases can cause mental retardation, blindness, and other physical disorders Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of miscarriage, premature birth, an abnormal fetal heartbeat, and an underweight baby Regular consumption of alcohol can kill neurons throughout the fetus’s developing brain and impair the child’s later mental abilities, attention span, and academic achievement ( fetal alcohol syndrome [FAS]) Drugs other than alcohol can be harmful to the fetus The Infant’s World o Many abilities, tendencies, and characteristics are universal in human beings and are present at birth or develop early, given certain experiences o Physical and perceptual abilities Newborns begin life with several motor reflexes , automatic behaviors that are necessary for survival Babies are also equipped with a set of inborn perceptual abilities: they can see, hear, touch, smell, and taste o Culture and maturation Although infants everywhere develop according to the same maturational sequence, many aspects of their development depend on cultural customs that govern how their parents interact with them Developmental milestones, such as crawling, can change quickly when there is a cultural change in baby-care practices Attachment o Emotional attachment is a universal capacity of all primates and is crucial for health and survival all through life
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o The mother is usually the first and primary object of attachment for an infant, but in many cultures, babies become just as attached to their fathers, siblings, and grandparents o Ideally, infants will find a balance between feeling securely attached to the caregiver and feeling free to explore and learn in new environments
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This note was uploaded on 02/05/2011 for the course PS 101 taught by Professor Hoffman during the Fall '07 term at BU.

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Chapter 13 Outline Part 2 - 13. Development over the Life...

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