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3500Ch21 - Essentially all free energy used by biological...

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2/4/11 Essentially all free energy used by biological systems is from Photosynthesis is the process that traps solar energy. CO2 + H2O (CH2O) + O2 Formation of carbohydrates – primarily sucrose and starch. This happens in chloroplasts. Chlorophylls, capture the energy of light and generate high-energy light
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2/4/11 22 Photosynthesis: Occurs in chloroplasts granum
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2/4/11 Chloroplasts Typically 5 microm long. Leaf cells contain between 1-100, depending on the species, cell type, and growth conditions. 3 membranes Outer, Inner and Thylakoid membranes Thylakoid membranes are like the mitochondrial
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2/4/11 Chloroplast from spinach leaf – thylakoid
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2/4/11 Thylakoid membranes This is where things happen! 50-50 lipids - proteins Are impermeable to most molecules and ions (as is the inner membrane) Contains Light-harvesting proteins Reaction centers Electron-transport chain proteins, ATP synthase
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2/4/11 Chloroplasts Have DNA, and the machinery to replicate and express protein. Like mitochondria they are not autonomous Plants are dependent on chloroplasts and Cyanobacteria – the hypothesized ancestor of chloroplasts
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2/4/11 Electrons Used to produce NADPH ATP They are used to reduce CO2 creating 3- phosphoglycer ate (Calvin cycle, Ch 22, aka the dark Light is used to remove electrons from water creating O2. These electrons reduce NADP+ to NADPH. NADPH is used indirectly to
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2/4/11 Light absorption by chlorophyll – Substituted tetrapyrrole Coordinated to a central Mg ion. It is differentiated from heme, which binds Fe Effective photoreceptors because of the extensive network of alternating single and double bonds. Absorb maximally in the visible
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2/4/11 Chlorophyll – Similar to heme, Mg binds at the center of the structure.
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2/4/11 Absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a and b
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2/4/11 What happens when the lights are on?
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