Notes - College of Science and Mathematics Paraphrasing and...

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Unformatted text preview: College of Science and Mathematics Paraphrasing and Paraphrasing and Referencing ­ Avoiding Plagiarism: An Interactive Lecture Dr. Marina Koether Modified by J. Powers Plagiarism Defined Plagiarism Defined “Plagiarism is the unauthorized use of someone else's thoughts or wording either by incorrect documentation, failing to cite your sources altogether, or simply by relying way too heavily on external resources.” 1 Plagiary is basically not giving credit to someone else for their ideas or words—by not giving proper credit, you are essentially stealing their ideas/words. Examples of Plagiary Examples of Plagiary If you copy something without paraphrasing it and don’t put quotation marks around it, this is plagiary If you look at something and gain ideas from it and don’t reference it you are plagiarizing A paraphrase with no citation is plagiary Swapping out words without changing sentence structure is plagiary Changing sentence structure without changing words is plagiary Penalties for Plagiarism Penalties for Plagiarism “Because it is intellectual theft, plagiarism is considered by all post­ secondary institutions as an academic crime with punishment anywhere from an “F” on that particular paper to dismissal from the course to expulsion from the college or university.”1 “Harvard to Hornstine: No Way” “The Harvard Crimson reported that the school had rescinded Hornstine's acceptance after learning that she had used unattributed text from other authors in columns for a local paper.”2 Ohio University Ohio University http://home.bellsouth.net/s/editorial.dll?pnum=1&bfro Grads in Plagiarism Scandal Face Hearing Published: 8/23/06, 12:45 PM EDT 37 students; most plagiarized in background section When does it become “yours”? When does it become “yours”? Your original thought Your conclusions Syntheses of thoughts Avoiding Plagiary: Avoiding Plagiary: Paraphrasing Take notes by writing the key points and not copying the entire sentence1 Avoid using the author’s words, sentence structure or style Develop a well­written document, incorporating the sources clearly by indicating which sources were consulted and following the proper methods of citation1 Paraphrasing vs. Citing Paraphrasing vs. Citing Paraphrasing allows for the writing style of the author of the new document to prevail. If a number of quotes are sewn together into a new document, the document will be quite choppy to read since each quote will have a different style of writing. Long quotations should be indented Paraphrasing and Citing Paraphrasing and Citing Multiple citations from the same source should all be cited individually Unintentional plagiarism occurs when the methods of citation are not understood Plagiary Example Plagiary Example “Colleges venturing into online education face a great deal of scrutiny among educators over the question of academic integrity,”3 is written in article one. The plagiarized article says “Online education has come under a great deal of scrutiny over the issue of academic integrity.”3 Plagiary Example Plagiary Example Article one has "However, a strong case can be made that it is more difficult for students to cheat and easier for educators to detect cheating in the virtual classroom,“3. The plagiarized article has "Ironically, a strong case can be made that it is actually harder to cheat online and that it is also easierto detect.“3 Will this be plagiary? Will this be plagiary? Mary and Laura were lab partners for advanced organic chemistry lab. After three weeks of working on one experiment, a total of 18 hours of work, they sat down together to come up with the 3 page introduction, 3 page experimental section and 3 page discussion on the computer. They went their separate ways each with an electronic copy of the lab report with the notion to change it so it was in “their own words” since it was worth 15% of their grade. Comments???? From Journal of Biological Education (2003) 37(3) page 139. The paragraph below is taken from Pharmacology (4th edition, 1999) by Rang, Dale and Ritter. 4 “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” Handouts provided Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences “Study the essay extracts and decide whether or not you consider the author of the work to be guilty of plagiarism ­­ some 4 may be more obvious than others!” The paper in front of you has the original sentence. Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 1. During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced. 1. Yes, no reference is provided and the words are taken directly from the source. This is plagiarism. Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 2. During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced. (Rang et al., 1999) 2. Yes, the work has been acknowledged but no indication is given that it is a direct quote. This is plagiarism. 3. “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” (Rang et al., 1999) 3. No, the work is cited and quoted. This is not plagiarism, but stringing together quoted chunks is not a well­written document and would not get high scores. Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 4. In the 4th edition of their textbook Pharmacology (1999), Rang, Dale and Ritter state that: 'During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.' Such a bold assertion understates the ongoing threat posed by microbial infection. It is estimated, for example, that worldwide there were over 8 million cases of tuberculosis in 1998 (WHO, 2000). Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 4. No, not plagiarized. This is fine. Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 5. The development of safe and effective drugs to deal with bacterial infections has dramatically reduced the death rate arising from microbial diseases. (Rang et al., 1999) 5. Yes ­ Guilty – just changing words and sentence order is plagiarism. Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 6. During the post­war years, the development of effective and safe drugs to dealwith bacterial infections has transformed medical treatment, and death and illness resulting from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced. (Rang et al., 1999) 6. Yes ­ Guilty – word swapping is not sufficient. Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 7. The availability of antimicrobial compounds has transformed healthcare in the period since the second world war. People are far less likely to die or even be seriously ill than they had been prior to the introduction of these drugs. (Rang et al., 1999) Student’s Sentences Student’s Sentences 7. No. The student has created their own words for the reference. It may now be in the student’s own words but the idea still came from the reference and thus, the idea is referenced. Chemistry Example Chemistry Example Kotz, J.C.,; Treichel, Jr., P.M. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, Fifth Ed.; Thomson: New York, 2003; p 269. “Einstein used the photoelectric effect to demonstrate that light, usually thought of as having wave properties, can also have the properties of particles, albeit without mass”. Paraphrase this now in your own words on the back of the previous handout and hand in. Paraphrase Example Paraphrase Example By using the photoelectric effect, Einstein showed that light can have properties of particles as well as waves. These particles would have no mass. Light is known to have wave­like properties. Einstein proved by using the photoelectric effect that light also possesses properties of particles which would have no mass. References References 1.http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/ hypertext/ResearchW/plag.html 2. Newsweek,7/21/2003, Vol. 142, Issue 3, p 50 3. Chronicle of Higher Education, 6/20/2003, Vol. 49, Issue 41, pA29 4. Journal of Biological Education (2003) 37(3) page 139. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2011 for the course CHEM 3000 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Kennesaw.

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