Anatomy I Final Review Power Point

Anatomy I Final Review Power Point - Anatomy Lab Final...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–29. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Anatomy Lab Final Exercises 11, 13, and 16 A: Nodes of Ranvier B: Myelin Sheath C: Axon A: Dendrite B: Soma (Cell Body) C: Nucleus D: Myelin Sheath E: Axon F: Axon Terminal Buttons A: Dorsal Root B: Ventral Root C: Gray Matter D: Dorsal Root Ganglion E: Central Canal F: White Matter Type: Muscle Function: Voluntary movement of bones Location: Muscles attached to bones Tissue: Muscle Function: Involuntary movement of internal organs Location: Walls of hollow internal organs Type: Muscle Function: Involuntary contraction of the heart Location: Heart muscle Exercise 12 A: Frontal Eye Field B: Prefrontal Area C: Broca’s Area D: Auditory E: Auditory Association F: Visual Association G: Visual H: Sensor Motor Area Lobe 1: Frontal Lobe 2: Temporal Lobe 3: Parietal A: Cingulate Sulcus B: Corpus Callosum C: Diencephalon D: Anterior Commissure E: Temporal Lobe F: Midbrain G: Pons H: Medulla Oblongata I: Cerebellum A: Frontal Lobe B: Broca’s Area C: Temporal Lobe D: Pons E: Parietal Lobe F: Reading Comprehension Area G: Occipital Lobe H: Sensory Speech Area of Wernicke I: Cerebellum J: Medulla Oblongata K: Longitudinal Fissure L: Premotor Area M: Precentral Gyrus N: Postcentral Gyrus A: Corpus Callosum B: Skull C: Meninges D: Cerebrum E: Lateral Ventricle F: 3rd Ventricle G: Thalamus H: Hypothalamus I: Diencephalon J: Pituitary Gland K: 4th Ventricle L: Cerebellum M: Vertebra N: Spinal Cord O: Midbrain P: Pons Q: Medulla Oblongata R: Brain Stem A: Olfactory Bulbs B: Optic Nerve C: Optic Chiasm D: Optic Tract E: Infundibulum F: Mammillary Body G: Oculomotor Nerve H: Cerebral Aqueduct I: Pineal Gland J: Corpus Callosum A: Olfactory (I) B: Optic (II) C: Oculomotor (III) D: Trochlear (IV) E: Trigeminal (V) F: Abducens (VI) G: Facial (VII) H: Glossopharyngeal (IX) I: Accessory (XI) J: Olfactory Bulb K: Olfactory Tract L: Optic Tract M: Vestibulocochlear (VIII) N: Hypoglossal (XII) O: Vagus (X) Arises from the olfactory epithelium Passes through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone Fibers run through the olfactory bulb and terminate in the primary olfactory cortex Summary of Tract Functions Olfactory Epithelium > Cribriform Plate > Olfactory Bulb > Primary Olfactory Cortex Carries afferent (to the CNS) impulses for the sense of smell Arises from the retina of the eye Passes through the optic canals and converge at the optic chiasm Continue to the thalamus where they synapse The optic radiation fibers run to the visual cortex (in the occipital lobe). Summary of Tract Functions Retina > Optic Canals > Optic Chiasm > Thalamus > Visual Cortex (Occipital Lobe) Carries afferent impulses for vision Extend from the ventral midbrain, pass through the superior orbital fissure, and go to the extrinsic eye muscles Summary of Tract Ventral Midbrain > Superior Orbital Fissure > Extrinsic Eye Muscles Raising eyelid, directing the eyeball, constricting the iris, and controlling lens shape Functions Emerge from the dorsal midbrain and enter the orbits via the superior orbital fissures; innervate the superior oblique muscle Summary of Tract Dorsal Midbrain > Orbits > Superior Orbital Fissure > Superior Oblique Muscle Directs the eyeball Function Fibers leave the inferior pons and enter the orbit via the superior orbital fissure Summary of Tract Inferior Pons > Orbit > Superior Orbital Fissure > Lateral Rectus Muscle Innervates the lateral rectus muscle, laterally abducts the eye Function Three Divisions Fibers run from the face to the pons via the superior orbital fissure (forthe ophthalmic), the foramen rotundum (for the maxillary), and the foramen ovale (for the mandibular). Summary of Tract Ophthalmic Maxillary Mandibular Functions Face > Superior Orbital Fissure > Pons: Ophthalmic Division Face > Foramen Rotundum > Pons: Maxillary Division Face > Foramen Ovale > Pons: Mandibular Division Conveys sensory impulses from various areas of the face and supplies motor fibers for mastication Fibers leave the pons, travel through the internal acoustic meatus, and emerge through the stylomastoid foramen to the lateral aspect of the face Summary of Tract Functions Pons > Internal Acoustic Meatus > Stylomastoid Foramen > Lateral Aspect of the Face Motor Facial expression and the transmittal of autonomic impulses to Sensory lacrimal and salivary glands Taste from the anterior two­thirds of the tongue Arise from the hearing and equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear, pass through the internal acoustic meatus, and enter the brainstem at the pons­medulla border Summary of Tract Two Divisions Hearing and Equilibrium Apparatus of the Inner Ear > Internal Acoustic Meatus > Brain Stem (Pons­Medulla Border) Functions Cochlear (Hearing) Vestibular (Balance) Equilibrium and hearing Emerge from the medulla, leave the skull via the jugular foramen, and run to the throat Summary of Tract Functions Medulla > Skull (Jugular Foramen) > Throat Motor Innervates part of the tongue and pharynx and provides Sensory motor fibers to the parotid salivary gland tongue and pharynx Fibers conduct taste and general sensory impulses from the Emerge from the medulla via the jugular foramen Summary of Tract Functions Medulla > Jugular Foramen > Beyond the Head and Neck Motor Parasympathetic fibers to the heart, lungs, and visceral Sensory Taste organs Formed from a cranial root emerging from the medulla and a spinal root arising from the superior region of the spinal cord The spinal root passes upward into the cranium via the foramen magnum; leaves the cranium via the jugular foramen Summary of Tract Functions Cranial Root (Medulla) and Spinal Root (Spinal Cord) > Foramen Magnum > Jugular Foramen Supplies fibers to the larynx, pharynx, and soft palate Innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, which move the head and neck Arise from the medulla and exit the skull via the hypoglossal canal Summary of Tract Medulla > Skull > Hypoglossal Canal Functions Innervates both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, which contribute to swallowing and speech Mainly extrinsic muscles A: Somatosensory B: Visual C: Auditory D: Gustatory E: Olfactory F: Motor A: Dura Mater B: Arachnoid Mater C: Pia Mater D: Cerebral Cortex E: White Matter F: Falx Cerebri Brain A: Central Sulcus B: Lateral Sulcus A: Corpora Quadridgemina B: Superior Colliculi C: Inferior Colliculi D: Arbor Vitae A: Optic Nerves Extending from the Optic Chiasm B: Olfactory Nerves www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/cn/cr Thalamus.wustl.edu/course/ www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/braintut/ab2.html Health.howstuffworks.com/brain9.htm Sheep Brain Web.baypath.edu/biology/sheep%20brain/brain­ sheep.html Exercise 13 A: Spinal Cord B: Intercostal Nerves C: Subcostal Nerve D: Lumbar Plexus E: Sacral Plexus F: Femoral Nerve G: Pudenal Nerve H: Sciatic Nerve I: Muscular Branches of Femoral Nerve J: Saphenous Nerve K: Tibial Nerve L: Brachial Plexus M: Musculocutaneous Nerve N: Radial Nerve O: Median Nerve P: Iliohypogastric Nerve Q: Genitofemoral Nerve R: Obturator Nerve S: Ulnar Nerve T: Common Peroneal Nerve U: Deep Peroneal Nerve V: Superficial Peroneal Nerve Nerves and Spinal Cord A: Filum Terminale B: Cauda Equina Conus Medullaris A: Soma of Sensory Neuron B: Gray Matter C: White Matter D: Dorsal Root E: Dorsal Root Ganglion F: Soma of Motor Neuron G: Ventral Root H: Spinal Nerve A: Central Canal B: Gray Commissure C: Anterior Median Fissure Upper Cranial Nerve: Accessory (XI) Lower Cranial Nerve: Hypoglossal (XII) This is the Cervical Plexus. A plexus is formed at the intercostal nerves. A: Lumbar Plexus B: Sacral Plexus C: Coccygeal Plexus Cervical: 8 Thoracic: 12 Lumbar: 5 Sacral: 5 Coccygeal: 1 From Sacral Plexus L4­5, S1­4 From Lumbar Plexus L1­4 A: Median B: Ulnar C: Radial From Brachial Plexus C5­C8 and T1 From Cervical Plexus C1­C5 SOMATIC Conscious control of skeletal muscles AUTONOMIC Regulates smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands Divisions Sympathetic Parasympathetic SYMPATHETIC Consists of the thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves Has a sympathetic chain and trunk PARASYMPATHETIC Consists of the cranial nerves and the sacral spinal nerves Exercise 14 A: Iris B: Cornea C: Pupil D: Lens E: Sclera F: Retina G: Optic Disc H: Optic Nerve A: Aqueous Humor B: Vitreous Humor C: Choroid Coat A: Superior Oblique Muscle B: Conjunctiva C: Inferior Oblique Muscle D: Inferior Rectus Muscle Located in the retina Responsible for sharp vision Allows for maximum acuity of vision A: Superior Rectus B: Superior Oblique C: Medial Rectus D: Inferior Oblique E: Inferior Rectus F: Lateral Rectus G: Iris H: Ciliary Body Muscle Superior Rectus Superior Oblique Inferior Rectus Inferior Oblique Medial Rectus Lateral Rectus Action Elevates eye and Turns it medially Depresses eye and Turns it laterally Depresses eye and Turns it medially Elevates eye and Turns it laterally Moves eye medially Moves eye laterally Improves vision in low­ light conditions Available in vertebrae animals (not humans) Reflects visible light back through the retina Contributes to the superior night vision of some animals Astigmatism: Irregularities with the curvature of the lens or cornea, which results in blurred vision. The chart is used for astigmatism. If a person has astigmatism, some of the lines will be blurred or appear less dark than the others. If the lines appear equally dark and distinct, the person has not astigmatism or distortion of the refracting surfaces in the eye. The chart, known as the Snellen chart, is used to test people’s vision. If a person stands 20 feet from the chart and can read what most people can read at 20 feet from the chart, then their vision is 20/20. If the visual acuity is 20/40, for example, that person can read at 20 feet what most people can read at 40 feet. If the visual acuity is 20/15, for example, that person can read at 20 feet what most people can read at 15 feet. Exercise 15 A: Pinna/Auricle B: External Auditory Meatus C: Tympanic Membrane D: Malleus/Hammer E: Incus/Anvil F: Stapes/Stirrup G: Semicircular Canals H: Vestibular Branch I: Cochlear Branch J: Cochlea A: Stapes B: Oval Window C: Cochlea D: Round Window E: Tympanic Cavity Exercises 17 and 18 O: Manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavicle I: Mastoid process of temporal bone and superior nuchal line of occipital bone Action: Flexes and laterally rotates the head Nerve: Accessory nerve and branches of cervical spinal nerves (C2 and C3) O: Occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and spinous processes of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae I: A continuous insertion along acromion and spine of scapula, and lateral 3rd of clavicle. Action: Stabilizes, raises, and retracts, and rotates scapula Nerve: Accessory (XI) and C3 and C4 O: Indirect attachment via lumbodorsal fascia into spines of lower six thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, lower 3 to 4 ribs, and iliac crest; also from scapula’s inferior angle. I: Spirals around teres major to insert in floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus Action: Prime mover of arm extension; powerful arm adductor; medially rotates arm at shoulder Nerve: Thoracodorsal (C6­C8) O: Embraces insertion of the trapezius; lateral third of clavicle; acromion and spine of scapula I: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Action: Prime mover of arm abduction when all its fibers contract simultaneously Nerve: Axillary O: By a series of muscle slips from ribs 1­8 (or 9) I: Entire anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula Action: rotates scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward Nerve: Long thoracic nerve (C5­C7) O: Spinous processes of C7 and T1 (Minor) and spinous processes of T2­T5 (Major) I: Medial border of scapula Action: Stabilize Scapula Nerve: Dorsal; Stabilize Nerve (C4 and C5) A: Subscapularis B: Infraspinatus C: Supraspinatus D: Teres Minor Subscapularis Infraspinatus O: Subscapular fossa of scapula I: Lesser tubercle of humerus Action: Chief medial rotator of humerus; helps stabilize the should joint Nerve: Subscapular (C5­C7) O: Infraspinous fossa of scapula I: Greater tubercle of humerus posterior to insertion of supraspinatus Action: Rotates humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizing the shoulder joint Nerve: Suprascapular Teres Minor Supraspinatus O: Laterbal border of dorsal scapular surface I: Greater tubercle of humerus inferior to infraspinatus insertion Action: Rotates humerus laterally; helps to hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizing the shoulder joint Nerve: Axillary O: Supraspinous fossa of scapula I: Superior part of greater tubercle of humerus Action: Initiates abduction; stabilizes shoulder joint; helps to prevent downward dislocation Nerve: Suprascapular O: transverse processes of C1­C4 I: Medial border of the scapula, superior to the spine Action: Elevates/adducts scapula; tilts glenoid cavity downward Nerve: Cervical spinal nerves and dorsal scapular nerve (C3­C5) O: Iliac crests (lumborum); Inferior 6 ribs (thoracis); Ribs 3 to 6 (cervicis) I: Angles of ribs (lumborum)(thoracis); Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C4­C6 (cervicis) Action: Extend and laterally flex the vertebral column; maintaining erect posture Nerve: Spinal nerves (dorsal rami) O: Inferior border of rib above I: Superior border of rib below Action: Pull ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage; aid in inspiration Nerve: Intercostal nerve O: Superior border of rib below I: Inferior border of rib above (costal groove) Action: Draw ribs together and depress rib cage; aid in forced expiration Nerve: Intercostal nerves A: External Oblique Muscles B: Internal Oblique Muscles C: Rectus Abdominus D: Transversus Abdominus External Oblique Internal Oblique O: By fleshy strips from outer surfaces of lower 8 ribs I: Most fibers insert into linea alba via a broad aponeurosis; Some insert into pubic crest and tubercle and iliac crest Action: Flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall; trunk rotation and lateral flexion Nerve: Intercostal Nerve O: Lumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inguinal ligament I: Linea alba, pubic crest, last 3­4 ribs, and costal margin Action: Flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall; trunk rotation and lateral flexion Nerve: Intercostal nerves Rectus Abdominus O: Pubic crest and symphysis I: Xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5­7 Action: Flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column Nerve: Intercostal nerve Transversus Abdominus O: Inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, cartilages of last 6 ribs, iliac crest I: Linea alba, pubic crest Action: Compresses abdominal contents Nerve: Intercostal nerve O Short head: coracoid process Long head: supraglenoid tubercle and lip of glenoid cavity; tendon of long head runs within capsule and into intertubercular sulcus of humerus I: By common tendon into radial tuberosity Action: Flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm Nerve: Musculocutaneous (C5 and C6) O I: By common tendon into olecranon process of ulna Action: Powerful forearm extensor; Long head tendon may help stabilize shoulder joint and assist in arm adduction Nerve: Radial (C6­C8) Long Head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Lateral Head: posterior shaft of humerus Medial Head: posterior humeral shaft distal to radial groove O: Front of distal humerus; embraces insertion of deltoid muscle I: Coronoid process of ulna and capsule of elbow joint Action: A major forearm flexor Nerve: Musculocutaneous A: Flexor Carpi Radialis B: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris O: Medial epicondyle of humerus I: Base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals; insertion tendon easily seen and provides guide to position of radial artery at wrist Action: Powerful flexor of wrist; abducts hand Nerve: Median O: Medial epicondyle of humerus; olecranon process and posterior surface of ulna I: Pisiform and hamate bones and base of 5th metacarpal Action: Powerful flexor of wrist; adducts hand; stabilizes wrist during finger extension Nerve: Ulnar (C7 and C8) O: Laterl epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna I: Base of 5th metacarpal Action: Extends wrist; adducts wrist Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus I: Base of 2nd metacarpal Action: Extends wrist; abducts wrist Nerve: Radial (C6 and C7) Iliacus Psoas Major O: Iliac fossa and crest, ala of scarum I: Lesser trochanter of femur via iliopsoas tendon Action: Prime mover for flexing thigh or for flexing trunk on thigh Nerve: Femoral (L2 and L3) O: By fleshy slips from transverse processes, bodies, and discs of lumbar vertebrae and T12 I: Lesser trochanter of femur via ilioposas tendon Action: Prime mover for flexing thigh or for flexing trunk on thigh; effects lateral flexion of vertebral column Nerve: Ventral Rami (L1­L3) O: Dorsal ilium, sacrum, and coccyx I: Gluteal tuberosity of femur; iliotibial tract Action: Major extensor of thigh; laterally rotates and abducts thigh Nerve: Inferior Gluteal (L5, S1, and S2) O: Betweeen anterior and inferior gluteal lines on external surface of ilium I: Anterior border of greater trochanter of femur Action: Abducts and medially rotates thigh Nerve: Superior Gluteal (L5 and S1) O: Anterolateral surface of sacrum (opposite greater sciatic notch) I: Superior border of greater trochanter of femur Action: Rotates extended thigh laterally Nerve: S1 and S2, L5 O: Pubis near pubic symphysis I: Linea Aspera Action: Adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh Nerve: Obturator (L2­L4) O: Ischial and pubic rami and ischial tuberosity I: Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur Action: Adducts and medially rotates and flexes thigh; thigh extension Nerve: Obturator and Sciatic (L2­L4) A: Pectineus B: Adductor Brevis O: Pubis (and Superior Ramus) I: From lesser trochanter inferior to the linea aspera on posterior aspect of femur Action: Adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh Nerve: Femoral and Sometimes Obturator O: Body and inferior ramus of pubis I: Linea Aspera above Adductor Longus Action: Adducts and medially rotates thigh Nerve: Obturator O: Inferior ramus and body of pubis and adjacent ischial ramus I: Medial surface of tibia just inferior to its medial condyle Action: Adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg Nerve: Obturator C: Gracilis A Rectus Femoris Vastus Intermedius B: Vastus Lateralis C: Vastus Medialis Rectus Femoris Vastus Lateralis O: Anterior inferior iliac spine and superior margin of acetabulum I: Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Action: Extends knee and flexes thigh and hip Nerve: Femoral (L2­L4) O: Greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, linea aspera I: Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Action: Extends and stabilizes knee Nerve: Femoral Vastus Medialis Vastus Intermedius O: Linea aspera, intertrochanteric and medial supracondylar lines I: Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Action: Extends knee Nerve: Femoral O: Anterior and lateral surfaces of proximal femur shaft I: Patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Action: Extends knee Nerve: Femoral A: Tensor Fascia Latae B: Sartorius O: Anterior aspect of iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine I: Iliotibial tract Action: Steadies the knee and trunk on thigh by making iliotibial tract taut; flexes and abducts thigh; rotates thigh medially Nerve: Superior gluteal (L4 and L5) O: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine I: Winds around medial aspect of knee and inserts into medial aspect of proximal tibia Action: Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee Nerve: Femoral A: Semimembranous B: Semitendonous O: Ischial tuberosity I: Medial condyle of tibia; via oblique popliteal ligament to lateral condyle of femur Action: Extends thigh and flexes knee Nerve: Sciatic Nerve­Tibial Portion (L5­S2) O: Ischial tuberosity in common with long head of biceps femoris I: Medial aspect of upper tibial shaft Action: Extends thigh and flexes knee Nerve: Sciatic­Tibal Nerve Portion (L5­S2) O: Ischial tuberosity (long head); Linea aspera, lateral supraconylar line, and distal femur (short head) I: Common tendon passes downward and laterally to insert into head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia Action: Extends thigh and flexes knee Nerve: Sciatic; Tibial nerve to long head, common fibular nerve to short head (L5­S2) O: By two heads from medial and lateral condyles of femur I: Posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Action: Plantar flexes foot Nerve: Tibial (S1 and S2) O: Extensive origin from superior tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane I: Posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Action: Plantar flexes foot Nerve: Tibial (S1 and S2) O: Superior tibia and fibula and interosseous membrane I: Tendon passes behind medial malleolus and under arch of foot; inserts into several tarsals and metatarsals 2­4 Action: Prime mover of foot inversion; plantar flexes foot Nerve: Tibial (L4 and L5) O: Extensive origin on the posterior tibia I: Tendon runs behind medial malleolus and inserts into distal phalanges of toes 2­5 Action: Plantar flexes and inverts foot; flexes toes Nerve: Tibial (L5­S2) A: Posterior Tibialis B: Flexor Digitorum Longus C: Flexor Hallucis Longus Tom (Posterior Tibialis) Dick (Flexor Digitorum Longus) O: Superior tibia and fibula and interosseous membrane I: Tendon passes behind medial malleolus and under arch of foot; inserts into several tarsals and metatarsals 2­4 Action: Prime mover of foot inversion; plantar flexes foot Nerve: Tibial (L4 and L5) O: Calcaneal tuberosity I: Middle phalanx of toes 2­4 Action: Helps flex toes Nerve: Medial plantar (A branch of tibial nerve, S1 and S2) O: Midshaft of fibula; interosseous membrane I: Tendon runs under foot to distal phalanx of great toe Action: Plantar flexes and inverts foot; flexes great toe at all joints Nerve: Tibial (L5­S2) Harry (Flexor Hallucis Longus) O: Lateral condyle and upper 2/3 of tibial shaft; interosseous membrane I: By tendon into inferior surfface of medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bone Action: Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot Nerve: Deep fibular (L4 and L5) O: Lateral condyle of tibia; proximal ¾ of fibula; interosseous membrane I: Middle and distal phalanges of toes 2­5 via extensor expansion Action: Prime mover of toe extension; dorsiflexes foot Nerve: Deep fibular (L5 and S1) O: Anteromedial fibula shaft and interosseous membrane I: Tendon inserts on distal phalanx of great toe Action: Extends great toe; dorsiflexes foot Nerve: Deep Fibular (L5 and S1) A: Peroneus Longus B: Peroneus Brevis O: Head and upper portion of lateral fibula I: By long tendon that curves under foot to first metatarsal and medial cuneiform Action: Plantar flexes and everts Nerve: Superficial Fibular (L5­ S2) O: Distal Fibula Shaft I: By tendon running behind lateral malleolus to insert on proximal end of 5th metatarsal Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot Nerve: Superficial Fibular (L5­ S2) Exercise 18 A: Latissimus Dorsi B: Deltoid C: Triceps Brachii A: Pectoralis Major B: Triceps Brachii C: External Oblique A: Semitendinosus B: Gastrocnemius C: Tibialis Anterior D: Biceps Femoris A: Adductor Longus B: Adductor Femoris C: Gastrocnemius D: Gracilis A: Trapezius B: Deltoid C: Latissimus Dorsi D: External Oblique A: Serratus Anterior B: Rectus Abdominus A: Transverse Abdominis B: Rectus Abdominis C: External Oblique D: Internal Oblique E: Serratus Anterior F: Latissimus Dorsi Cat Exercise 19 A: Contraction Period B: Latent Period C: Relaxation Period A short period between the time of stimulation and the beginning of contraction Although no force is generated during this interval, chemical changes occur intracellularly in preparation for contraction, such as the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The greater the voltage, the greater the current Voltage: the measure of potential energy generated by separated charge Increase in Voltage = Increase in Contraction Treppe (Muscle Warm­Up) Increases Muscle Contraction As the weight increases, the velocity decreases; however, the active force and total force increase. The most force is generated at half the resting length. ISOMETRIC Contraction in which the muscle does not shorten (the load is too heavy) but its internal tension increases ISOTONIC Contraction in which muscle tension remains constant at a given join angle and load, and the muscle shortens. ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 259

Anatomy I Final Review Power Point - Anatomy Lab Final...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 29. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online