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Study Guides - Anatomy A reflex is a rapid, predictable...

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Unformatted text preview: Anatomy A reflex is a rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus. Reflexes may: Be inborn (intrinsic) or learned (acquired) Involve only peripheral nerves and the spinal cord Involve higher brain centers as well There are five components of a reflex arc. Receptor: Site of stimulus Sensory Neuron: Transmits the afferent impulse to the CNS Integration Center: Either monosynaptic or polysynaptic region within the CNS Motor Neuron: Conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector. Effector: muscle fiber or gland that responds to the efferent impulse. Comes In > Happens Rapidly > Goes Out A: Olfactory (I) B: Optic (II) C: Oculomotor (III) D: Trochlear (IV) E: Trigeminal (V) F: Abducens (VI) G: Facial (VII) H: Glossopharyngeal (IX) I: Accessory (XI) J: Olfactory Bulb K: Olfactory Tract L: Optic Tract M: Vestibulocochlear (VIII) N: Hypoglossal (XII) O: Vagus (X) Arises from the olfactory epithelium Passes through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone Fibers run through the olfactory bulb and terminate in the primary olfactory cortex Summary of Tract Olfactory Epithelium > Cribriform Plate > Olfactory Bulb > Primary Olfactory Cortex Functions Carries afferent (to the CNS) impulses for the sense of smell Arises from the retina of the eye Passes through the optic canals and converge at the optic chiasm Continue to the thalamus where they synapse The optic radiation fibers run to the visual cortex (in the occipital lobe). Summary of Tract Retina > Optic Canals > Optic Chiasm > Thalamus > Visual Cortex (Occipital Lobe) Functions Carries afferent impulses for vision Extend from the ventral midbrain, pass through the superior orbital fissure, and go to the extrinsic eye muscles Summary of Tract Ventral Midbrain > Superior Orbital Fissure > Extrinsic Eye Muscles Functions Raising eyelid, directing the eyeball, constricting the iris, and controlling lens shape Emerge from the dorsal midbrain and enter the orbits via the superior orbital fissures; innervate the superior oblique muscle Summary of Tract Dorsal Midbrain > Orbits > Superior Orbital Fissure > Superior Oblique Muscle Function Directs the eyeball Fibers leave the inferior pons and enter the orbit via the superior orbital fissure Summary of Tract Inferior Pons > Orbit > Superior Orbital Fissure > Lateral Rectus Muscle Function Innervates the lateral rectus muscle, laterally abducts the eye Three Divisions Ophthalmic...
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Study Guides - Anatomy A reflex is a rapid, predictable...

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