Chemcial Bond

Chemcial Bond - CH14. The chemical bond Introductory...

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1 CH14. The chemical bond Introductory concepts 14.1 The classification of bonds 14.2 Potential energy curves Valence bond theory 14.3 Diatomic molecules 14.4 Polyatomic molecules 14.5 Promotion and hybridization 14.6 Resonance Molecular orbitals 14.7 Linear combinations of atomic orbitals 14.8 Bonding and antibonding orbitals 14.9 The structures of diatomic molecules 14.10 Hydrogen and helium molecules 14.11 Period 2 diatomic molecules 14.12 Symmetry and overlap 14.13 The electronic structures of homonuclear diatomic molecules 14.14 Heteronuclear diatomic molecules 14.15 The structures of polyatomic molecules Computational chemistry 14.16 Semi-empirical methods 14.17 Ab initio methods and density functional theory 14.18 Graphical output 14.19 Applications of computational chemistry
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2 An ionic bond is formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another and the consequent attraction between the ions so formed. A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons.
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5 Potential energy curve, surface R e A+BC AB+C AC+B
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6 Valence Bond Theory H H B H H H C H H H H H Cl O H H N H H H molecule our of structure Lewis down the by writing start theory we bond In valence
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7 The hydrogen molecule: The spatial wavefunction ψ (1,2) = ψ A (1) ψ B (2) ψ (1,2) = ψ A (2) ψ B (1) Electron 1 is localized on atom A, Electron 2 is on atom B (this is just the simplest model). This is a wave function (WF) of two non interacting particles WF of 2 electrons in H 2 :
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8 H H Valence Bond Theory Applications A 1s H ;B H invarient to rotation I. Diatomics A B )] 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( [ 1 ( A(2) ) 2 ( [A(1) = ) 2 , 1 ( B B
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10 A first approximation to the valence-bond description of bonding in an H 2 O molecule. Each bond arises from the overlap of an H1 s orbital with one of the O2 p orbitals. This model suggests that the bond angle should be 90 , which is significantly different from the experimental value. (1,2) = [A(1)B(2) A(2)B(1)] [ (1) (2) (2)] Valence Bond Theory Applications 4.Tetrahedral sp 3 hybrides O H H X y z t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 use of sp 3 hybrides 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 : z y x p p p s O H1 s H1 s
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11 Methane 2 2 2 2 1 1 s p p x y “promotion” 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 s p p p x y z H1 s H1 s H1 s H1 s Carbon Promotion and hybridization
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12 sp 3 hybrides
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13 Valence Bond Theory Applications C H H C H H C 2 H 4 C 2 H 4 (a) An s orbital and two p orbitals can be hybridized to form three equivalent orbitals that point towards the corners of an equilateral triangle. (b) The remaining, unhybridized p orbital is perpendicular to the plane. planar 2.Trigonal hybrides sp 2
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14 Valence Bond Theory Applications C H C H Linear . 3 A representation of the structure of a triple bond in ethyne; only the bonds are shown explicitly.
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course CHEM 3050 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Kennesaw.

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Chemcial Bond - CH14. The chemical bond Introductory...

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