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Unformatted text preview: 1 CH7. Principles of chemical equilibrium Thermodynamic background 7.1 The reaction Gibbs energy 7.2 The variation of r G with composition 7.3 Reactions at equilibrium 7.4 The standard reaction Gibbs energy 7.5 The equilibrium composition 7.6 The equilibrium constant in terms of concentration 7.7 Coupled reactions The response of equilibria to the conditions 7.8 The presence of a catalyst 7.9 The effect of temperature 7.10 The effect of compression The extent of the reaction, This leads to the fundamental equation for the Gibbs energy for a closed system when chemical reactions are considered: When chemical reactions are involved, the various dn i are not independent variables. If there is a single reaction, the amounts n i of the various species at any given time are given by where n i,0 is the initial amount of species i, i is the stoichiometric number of species I (negative for reactants, positive for products) in the reaction, and is the extent of the reaction , expressed in moles....
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