First Law - CH2 Thermodynamics The First Law 2.1 Systems...

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CH2. Thermodynamics: The First Law 2.1 Systems and surroundings 2.2 Work and heat 2.3 The measurement of work 2.4 The measurement of heat 2.5 Heat influx during expansion Internal energy and enthalpy 2.6 The internal energy 2.7 The enthalpy 2.8 The temperature variation of the enthalpy
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Classical thermodynamics
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3 The basic concepts, definitions The internal energy of an isolated system is constant Energy can neither be created nor destroyed only inter- converted System: part of the universe in which we are interested Surroundings : where we make our observations (the universe) Boundary: separates above two Energy: is capacity to do work; energy can take several forms including work and heat Work: motion against an opposing force
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4 System and surroundings Open: energy and matter exchanged Closed: energy exchanged Isolated: no exchange
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5 Diathermic wall: heat transfer permitted Adiabatic wall: no heat transfer System and surroundings
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6 Work, heat Work (w): transfer of energy that changes motions of atoms in the surroundings in a uniform manner Heat (q): transfer of energy that changes motions of atoms in the surroundings in a chaotic manner
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7 Endothermic, exothermic processes Exothermic : releases heat e.g. combustion reactions Endothermic : absorbs heat e.g. the vaporization of water
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8 The sign convention
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