General Chemistry review

General Chemistry review - Chapter 16 Kinetics: Rates and...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Chapter 16 Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions 16.1 Factors That Influence Reaction Rates 16.2 Expressing the Reaction Rate 16.3 The Rate Law and Its Components 16.4 Integrated Rate Laws: Concentration Changes over Time 16.7 Reaction Mechanisms: Steps in the Overall Reaction 16.8 Catalysis: Speeding Up a Chemical Reaction 16.5 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate 16.6 Explaining the Effects of Concentration and Temperature
Background image of page 2
3 Homework ± Homework – all blue colored questions up to and including 16-101. ± Homework Policy: Homework from the textbook will be assigned but not collected or graded. The solutions manual has the answers to these assigned questions – thus the purchase of the solutions manual is highly recommended ± Quizzes for chapters 12, 13, and 16 are due on the Test I date.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 ± Some chemical reactions take place rapidly, other are very slow: ± Slow reaction : ± Fast reaction, t<1 sec (aq) NaNO AgCl(s) NaCl(aq) (aq) AgNO 3 3 + + Introduction
Background image of page 4
5 ± Chemical kinetics: Chemical kinetics: the study of the rates of chemical reactions ± The rate of a reaction The rate of a reaction is the change in concentration of a reactant (or product) per unit of time ± to determine the rate of reactions, we measure the concentration of reactant (product) at periodic time intervals ± Food dye Chemical Kinetics
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
6 Reaction rate: the central focus of chemical kinetics Figure 16.1
Background image of page 6
7 16.1 Factors That Influence Reaction Rate Under a specific set of conditions, every reaction has its own characteristic rate, which depends upon the chemical nature of the reactants. Four factors can be controlled during the reaction: 1. Concentration - molecules must collide to react; 2. Physical state - molecules must mix to collide; 3. Temperature - molecules must collide with enough energy to react; 4. The use of a catalyst.
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
8 ± in order for two species, A and B (they may be molecules or ions), to react, they must first collide ± it is possible to calculate how many collisions will take place between A and B in a given period of time ± such calculations indicate that the rate at which A and B collide is far greater than the rate at which they react ± the conclusion is that most collisions do not result in a reaction ± a collision that does result in a reaction is called an effective effective collision collision ± there are two main reasons why some collisions are effective and others are not; activation energy and the orientation of A and B at the time of collision Molecular Collisions
Background image of page 8
9 Molecular Collisions Effect of molecular Effect of molecular orientation orientation Effective collision Effective collision Effect of molecular Effect of molecular energy energy
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10 a) a) Head Head -on collision (higher collision energy) on collision (higher collision energy) b) b) Collision at angle (lower collision energy) Collision at angle (lower collision energy) Energy of molecular collisions
Background image of page 10
11 Concentration ± in most cases, reaction rate increases when the concentration of either or both reactants increases ± for many reactions, there is a direct relationship between concentration and reaction rate
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 68

General Chemistry review - Chapter 16 Kinetics: Rates and...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 12. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online